cassandra-commits mailing list archives

Site index · List index
Message view « Date » · « Thread »
Top « Date » · « Thread »
From Apache Wiki <>
Subject [Cassandra Wiki] Update of "asuransi" by DedeWiweka
Date Wed, 02 Jan 2013 01:13:10 GMT
Dear Wiki user,

You have subscribed to a wiki page or wiki category on "Cassandra Wiki" for change notification.

The "asuransi" page has been changed by DedeWiweka:

New page:
What is asuransi jiwa?

In its simplest form, asuransi jiwa is protection for you in case something goes wrong. For
example, you have asuransi jiwa for your house in case it burns down. If that happens, you
get money from the asuransi jiwa company to house your family and rebuild (or replace) your
home. You can purchase asuransi jiwa for a wide variety of perils - fire, theft, natural disasters
(floods, earthquakes, etc.), property damage, personal injury claims, and so forth.

What are the different types of coverage?

Again in a simplified format, consider two basic types of coverage: first party coverage,
and third party coverage.

What is "first party" coverage?

A "first party" policy is one that protects you in case you suffer damage or loss. Thus, a
home asuransi jiwa policy is usually a "first party" policy ¡V you, as the homeowner, are
the first party (you own the home) and you are the person who can receive benefits under the
policy. Most often first party policies provide property damage coverage and medical coverage
to you, the policyholder.

What is "third party" coverage?

Contrast "first party" coverage with "third party" coverage, which usually protects you against
claims brought by others. The person making the claim sometimes is referred to as a "third
party claimant." Typical examples of third party coverage are automobile liability policies
that offer protection when you are in an auto accident. Not only do they provide medical coverage
for you (first party coverage), but they also "cover you" if an inured party brings a claim
against you for careless driving. Another example of "third party" coverage is the liability
coverage in your homeowner's policy - coverage that protects you if somebody is injured while
on your property.

What is the asuransi jiwa company's obligation if I have a claim?

If you have a claim, whether a first party claim for yourself, or a third party claim when
you are requesting the company to protect you from a claim brought by another person, your
asuransi jiwa company has two basic duties. These are (1) the duty to fairly and promptly
investigate the claim; and (2) the duty to pay the claim if it is valid. Both of these obligations
must be carried out with reasonable speed, and they are governed by the asuransi jiwa company's
duty of "good faith and fair dealing." Sometimes, this duty is referred to by lawyers and
courts as the covenant of good faith and fair dealing. It is called a covenant because asuransi
jiwa policies are basically contracts which contain a series of promises (covenants) that
the parties rely on. The most important of those covenants, from the policyholder's point
of view, is that the carrier will step up to bat when necessary to protect the policyholder.
The courts have noted over the years that what a person really is purchasing when he/she buys
asuransi jiwa is peace of mind ¡V the security that a just claim will be taken care of properly.

What is the "duty to defend"?

Part of the duties discussed above is the asuransi jiwa company's "duty to defend." This means
the duty to defend you, the policyholder, in the event a third party brings a claim. Pursuant
to this duty the asuransi jiwa company, at its expense, must hire a lawyer to represent you,
and must pay the costs of defending the litigation. Those costs can be substantial, and this
is an important part of the carrier's duty.

What is the duty to indemnify?

Indemnity is a big word that really means "pay money." In short, the duty to indemnify is
the duty to pay money to a third party if there is liability. Stated another way, if it is
established that you, the policyholder, are liable to a third party for damages, the asuransi
jiwa company must pay the amount of damages assessed by the court, arbitrator, etc. This payment
is called indemnity in the world of asuransi jiwa.

What if liability is unclear?

In many cases, the issue of liability is disputed. This is to be expected, because often times
witnesses's accounts of an incident (say, an auto accident) conflict, and it is hard to determine
just who was at fault. Because of this uncertainty, and to reduce the risk of an adverse judgment,
many cases are settled. People decided to "buy their peace," rather than continue to dispute
liability and risk a high judgment against themselves. In most policies, the asuransi jiwa
company has the right to investigate and settle claims in its discretion, as long as the settlement
is within the limits of the policy coverage and is paid entirely by the carrier. (In some
types of policies, the insured has the right to approve all settlements. This is sometimes
a term in a policy that covers a professional for malpractice.)

What if the case cannot be settled?

The simple answer is that cases that cannot be settled go to trial, either before a judge
or a jury. After trial, the judge or jury issues its decision, either fixing or denying liability,
and setting the amount of damages.

What if a case is tried and the amount of the judgment is more than my asuransi jiwa policy?

This is a key question, and it has resulted in a number of key court decisions. The most important
principle to remember in this area is that the asuransi jiwa company has a duty to defend
you, which includes a duty to reasonably settle claims so that you are protected from third
parties coming after your assets.

If you are involved in a case and the third party (the person suing you) makes a demand that
the case be settled within the limits of your policy, your asuransi jiwa company must either
honor that demand (pay it) or else bear the risk that the judgment will exceed the policy
limits. If the settlement offer is turned down by the asuransi jiwa carrier and a higher judgment
results, the asuransi jiwa company has to pay the entire judgment, even if the amount is more
than your asuransi jiwa policy.

A simple example illustrates the point. Say you are in an auto accident. There is a big dispute
as to whether you were careless and the cause of the accident. A third party (say, the person
whose car you hit) suffers serious injuries. Let's further assume you have an asuransi jiwa
policy that provides $100,000 of coverage for third party liability claims. We will also assume
that in our example, the injured person's claim amounts to $500,000.

This presents an obvious problem for you, the policyholder. If the case cannot be settled
within your asuransi jiwa policy, your assets could be exposed to the third party's claim.
(You probably will receive a letter from the carrier explaining this in detail.) But let's
assume the lawyer for the injured party learns of your asuransi jiwa limits and knows you
may not have sufficient assets to cover a judgment in excess of those limits. That lawyer
will probably then make what is commonly referred to as a "policy limits" demand. He/she will
ask the carrier to pay out the limits of the coverage in settlement of the claim. This is
a common tactic, because it sets up the asuransi jiwa carrier for a "bad faith" claim. That
is, if the carrier turns down the policy limits offer, and a higher judgment results, the
carrier has breached its duty of good faith and fair dealing toward the policyholder. By exposing
the policyholder to "excess" liability when the case could have been settled within policy
limits, the carrier has breached the covenant of good faith and fair dealing, and is liable
for the excess. This rule is very protective of the policyholder.

What if there is no coverage? Will the asuransi jiwa company still defend me? Will it still
pay the claim?

Again, this is a key question. asuransi jiwa coverage is controlled by the language of the
asuransi jiwa policy. Every policy has limitations and all contain outright exclusions that
eliminate coverage in a variety of circumstances. For example, most policies include an exclusion
for "intentional acts" of the insured.[[|
Jual beli online aman menyenangkan | dedewiweka]] If you, the policyholder, hit someone over
the head with a baseball bat and are sued for assault and battery, there may not be coverage
because your act was intentional.

Note: To avoid this issue and "trigger" coverage, many attorneys who represent injured parties
bring cases based on a variety of legal theories. In the baseball bat example above, the injured
party's lawyer may claim that there was an intentional injury (and ask for punitive damages),
while at the same time also pleading that the injury resulted from your negligence, thus triggering
asuransi jiwa coverage.

Often, if there is a dispute over coverage, the asuransi jiwa company may file a separate
lawsuit to determine if coverage applies. This cases are called "declaratory relief" actions
(the common shorthand among attorneys is "dec relief."). In a declaratory relief case, the
parties seek a declaration from the court about the nature and extent of coverage.

Sometimes, despite the uncertainty, the carrier will pay the claim anyway, thus avoiding an
adverse ruling on the coverage issue. There are few hard and fast rules here. Each case, however,
must be carefully evaluated on its individual merits to determine the likely course of action.
The point to remember is that the terms of asuransi jiwa coverage are sometimes vague and
require interpretation by the courts. Just because you have a policy, that does not automatically
mean you are covered. What you need to do is square up the type of claim and the facts of
the claim with the terms of your liability coverage.

Does the asuransi jiwa company always have to defend me?

No. If it is clear that there is no possibility of coverage, the asuransi jiwa company does
not have to defend you. The duty to defend only arises if there is a possibility that the
claim will be covered. Take the baseball bat example cited above. If it is clear that the
incident was an intentional assault, there might not be any possibility of coverage, and thus
no duty to defend. But suppose the witnesses were in conflict ¡V one saying you just hauled
off an hit the person, another who says you were warming up for a softball game, turned around
and bumped into the plaintiff? In that case, it would be unclear and because the injury might
have resulted from your failure to carefully wield the bat on your shoulder, there would be
a duty to defend and, if it were determined that it was your neglig3ence that caused the injury,
there would be a duty to indemnify you (i.e., a duty to pay the claim).

Do the attorney's fees and other costs of litigation come out of my liability coverage, or
are they paid in addition to it?

It depends. The key factor is the language of the policy. For example, in most auto policies,
the defense costs are in addition to the amount of liability coverage. Thus, if you have $100,000
in liability coverage, and if the legal costs of a case are $75,000. This does not reduce
your liability coverage to $25,000. The company must pay all the legal costs and there is
still $100,000 to cover the third party's claim.

A policy in which defense costs come out of the liability limit is called a "declining limits"
policy. The term is pretty self explanatory ¡V the amount of liability coverage declines,
dollar for dollar, with each expenditure of legal costs. In the example above, the $75,000
in legal fees would be subtracted from the liability limit of $100,000 and would, in fact,
reduce the coverage to $25,000.

What are"occurrence" and "claims made" policies?

These are important terms and they govern virtually every asuransi jiwa policy. Every policy
has an effective time limit. For example, a policy may provide coverage between January 1st
and December 31st of a given year. Where the terms "occurrence" and "claims made" come into
play is when we consider what is covered curing that policy year.

If you have an "occurrence" policy, it covers occurrences that take place during the policy
year regardless of when the claim is brought against you.
If you have a "claims made" policy, the date of the occurrence does not matter at all, because
the policy covers you for claims that are first made against you during the policy year, regardless
of when the claim actually occurred.

Once again, simple [[|Commonwealth
Life Perusahaan Asuransi Jiwa Terbaik Indonesia | dedewiweka]] help make the point. Say you
have an occurrence policy in force between January 1st and December 31st and the incident
in question occurs on October 30th. A lawsuit is brought two and a half years later. The policy
in force during the year of occurrence is the one that will offer coverage.

Assume the same facts, except that the policy is a "claims made" policy. In that case, the
policy that was in force when the incident occurred will not provide coverage. The pertinent
policy (if it exists) is the one in force when the claim is made two and a half years later.
The coverages exist for different reasons. Often, in the business world, things happen but
claims are not brought until several years later. Thus, a doctor or lawyer might have a malpractice
policy that is a claims made policy rather than an occurrence policy. Most personal coverages,
however, are occurrence policies. 

View raw message