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From conflue...@apache.org
Subject [CONF] Apache Cayenne Documentation: Understanding Transactions (page edited)
Date Fri, 08 Jun 2007 18:51:00 GMT
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</head>
<body>

<div id="PageContent">
<table class="pagecontent" border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" width="100%"><tr>
<td valign="top" class="pagebody">

    <div class="pageheader">
        <span class="pagetitle">
            Page Edited :
            <a href="http://cwiki.apache.org/confluence/display/CAYDOC">CAYDOC</a>
:
            <a href="http://cwiki.apache.org/confluence/display/CAYDOC/Understanding+Transactions">Understanding
Transactions</a>
        </span>
    </div>

     <p>
        <a href="http://cwiki.apache.org/confluence/display/CAYDOC/Understanding+Transactions">Understanding
Transactions</a>
        has been edited by             <a href="http://cwiki.apache.org/confluence/display/~andrus">Andrus
Adamchik</a>
            <span class="smallfont">(Jun 08, 2007)</span>.
     </p>
    <p>
      Change summary:
      <div class="greybox wiki-content"><p>typo </p></div>
    </p>
     <p>
                 <a href="http://cwiki.apache.org/confluence/pages/diffpagesbyversion.action?pageId=10516&originalVersion=9&revisedVersion=10">(View
changes)</a>
     </p>

    <span class="label">Content:</span><br/>
    <div class="greybox wiki-content"><p>Cayenne has its own simple transaction
API centered around <tt>org.apache.cayenne.access.Transaction</tt> class. Its
goal is to ensure consistency of the DataContext database operations. It works either as a
standalone mechanism, or in conjunction with another transaction framework, such as JTA or
Spring. To switch between the two modes of operation, use "Container-Managed Transactions"
checkbox in the DataDomain editing panel in CayenneModeler:</p>

<p><img src="/confluence/download/attachments/10516/transactions-types.png" align="absmiddle"
border="0" /></p>

<p>If this box is unchecked (default), standalone mode is used and Cayenne will take
care of transactional resources management on its own. If it is checked, Cayenne won't commit
or rollback transactional resources, relying on the external transaction manager to do that.</p>

<p>In both cases Transaction API works implicitly behind the scenes, so the application
doesn't need to interact with it directly. In that Cayenne Transactions are fully declarative.</p>

<h3><a name="UnderstandingTransactions-HowTransactionsWork"></a>How Transactions
Work</h3>

<p>Similar to the Java EE approach, Cayenne transactions are bound to the current thread
for the duration of the execution. For instance this is how Cayenne does an internal check
of whether there is a transaction in progress:</p>

<div class="code"><div class="codeContent">
<pre class="code-java"><span class="code-keyword">import</span> org.apache.cayenne.access.Transaction;
...
Transaction currentTx = Transaction.getThreadTransaction();
<span class="code-keyword">if</span>(currentTx != <span class="code-keyword">null</span>)
{
  <span class="code-comment">// transaction in process...
</span>}</pre>
</div></div>

<p>When a Transaction is created inside Cayenne, it is immediately bound to the thread:</p>
<div class="code"><div class="codeContent">
<pre class="code-java">Transaction tx = ...;
Transaction.bindThreadTransaction(tx);</pre>
</div></div>

<p>Now let's revisit the flow of a typical operation that requires a transaction:</p>
<ol>
	<li>A DataContext sends a query or a commit request to the underlying <tt>org.apache.cayenne.DataChannel</tt>.</li>
	<li>The request travels the chain of DataChannels until it reaches one that is a <tt>org.apache.cayenne.access.DataDomain</tt>.</li>
	<li>DataDomain analyzes context request and dispatches data queries to one or more
<tt>org.apache.cayenne.access.DataNodes</tt>.</li>
	<li>Each DataNode opens a JDBC Connection and executes queries.</li>
</ol>


<p>Transactions come into play in <b>step 3</b>. DataDomain checks whether
there is an existing Transaction in process and if not - creates and starts a new one (standalone
or container, depending on the preconfigured type). In that Cayenne transaction policy is
similar to Java EE <tt>"REQUIRE"</tt> policy.</p>

<p>Later in <b>step 4</b> DataNodes will attach any of the Connections they
obtains to the ongoing transaction:</p>

<div class="code"><div class="codeContent">
<pre class="code-java"><span class="code-keyword">import</span> java.sql.Connection;
...
Connection connection = ...
currentTx.addConnection(<span class="code-quote">"someKey"</span>, connection);</pre>
</div></div>

<h3><a name="UnderstandingTransactions-TransactionLifecycleCallbacks%3ATransactionDelegate"></a>Transaction
Lifecycle Callbacks: TransactionDelegate</h3>

<p>If you want to execute some custom code, such as Cayenne queries or raw JDBC queries
at certain points in transaction lifecycle, you need to implement a <tt>org.apache.cayenne.access.TransactionDelegate</tt>
callback interface:</p>
<div class="code"><div class="codeContent">
<pre class="code-java"><span class="code-keyword">public</span> class MyTxCallback
<span class="code-keyword">implements</span> TransactionDelegate {

    <span class="code-keyword">public</span> <span class="code-object">boolean</span>
willCommit(Transaction transaction) {
        <span class="code-comment">// run extra query before transaction is committed
</span>
        <span class="code-comment">// The results of it will be committed or rolled
back together with the current Transaction. 
</span>
        DataContext context = DataContext.getThreadDataContext();
        context.performGenericQuery(<span class="code-keyword">new</span> SQLTemplate(X.class,
<span class="code-quote">"..."</span>));

        <span class="code-comment">// <span class="code-keyword">return</span>
<span class="code-keyword">true</span>, letting Cayenne know it should <span
class="code-keyword">continue</span> with commit
</span>        <span class="code-keyword">return</span> <span class="code-keyword">true</span>;
    }

    <span class="code-keyword">public</span> <span class="code-object">boolean</span>
willMarkAsRollbackOnly(Transaction transaction) {
        <span class="code-keyword">return</span> <span class="code-keyword">true</span>;
    }

    <span class="code-keyword">public</span> <span class="code-object">boolean</span>
willRollback(Transaction transaction) {
        <span class="code-keyword">return</span> <span class="code-keyword">true</span>;
    }

    <span class="code-keyword">public</span> void didCommit(Transaction transaction)
{
    }

    <span class="code-keyword">public</span> void didRollback(Transaction transaction)
{
    }

    <span class="code-keyword">public</span> <span class="code-object">boolean</span>
willAddConnection(Transaction transaction, Connection connection) {
        <span class="code-keyword">return</span> <span class="code-keyword">true</span>;
    }
}</pre>
</div></div>

<p>Then an instance can be registered with the DataDomain. </p>
<div class="code"><div class="codeContent">
<pre class="code-java">DataDomain domain = Configuration.getSharedConfiguration().getDomain();
domain.setTransactionDelegate(<span class="code-keyword">new</span> MyTxCallback());</pre>
</div></div>

<p>The delegate is shared by all DataContexts.</p>

<h3><a name="UnderstandingTransactions-UserDefinedTransactionScope"></a>User-Defined
Transaction Scope</h3>

<p>If the application needs to define its own transactional scope (e.g. wrap more than
one <tt>DataContext.commitChanges()</tt> in a single database transaction), an
explict <tt>org.apache.cayenne.access.Transaction</tt> can be started. It will
serve as a simple substitute for the JTA transactions (of course JTA UserTransaction can be
used instead if desired).</p>

<table cellpadding='5' width='85%' cellspacing='8px' class='noteMacro' border="0" align='center'><colgroup><col
width='24'><col></colgroup><tr><td valign='top'><img src="/confluence/images/icons/emoticons/warning.gif"
width="16" height="16" align="absmiddle" alt="" border="0"></td><td>If the
user code starts a Transaction, it <b>must</b> explicitly invoke "commit/rollback"
methods and unbind the Transaction from the current thread when it is finished. Failure to
do that may result in connection leaks. Of course if Cayenne starts an implicit transaction,
it does the cleanup internally on its own.</td></tr></table>

<p>Below is an example of user-controlled Transaction code. First it obtains a new transaction
from the DataDomain (alternatively users can create Transaction subclasses of their own):</p>
<div class="code"><div class="codeContent">
<pre class="code-java">DataDomain domain = Configuration.getSharedConfiguration().getDomain();
Transaction tx = domain.createTransaction();</pre>
</div></div>

<p>As we must finish transaction regardless of the outcome, wrap the rest of the code
in try/catch/finally. Don't foget to bind/unbind the transaction, so that Cayenne stack is
aware of it:</p>

<div class="code"><div class="codeContent">
<pre class="code-java">Transaction.bindThreadTransaction(tx);

<span class="code-keyword">try</span> {
    <span class="code-comment">// <span class="code-keyword">do</span> something...
</span>    ....
    <span class="code-comment">// <span class="code-keyword">if</span> no
failures, commit
</span>    tx.commit();
}
<span class="code-keyword">catch</span> (Exception ex) {
    tx.setRollbackOnly();
}
<span class="code-keyword">finally</span> {
    Transaction.bindThreadTransaction(<span class="code-keyword">null</span>);
 
    <span class="code-keyword">if</span> (tx.getStatus() == Transaction.STATUS_MARKED_ROLLEDBACK)
{
        <span class="code-keyword">try</span> {
           tx.rollback();
        }
        <span class="code-keyword">catch</span> (Exception rollbackEx) {
        }
    }
}</pre>
</div></div></div>


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