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From conflue...@apache.org
Subject [CONF] Apache Cayenne Documentation: Prefetching (page edited)
Date Tue, 26 Aug 2008 12:27:00 GMT
<html>
<head>
    <base href="http://cwiki.apache.org/confluence" />
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	color: #000000;
	font-weight: normal;
}
#PageContent {
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/*
** when this stylesheet is used for the Tiny MCE Wysiwyg editor's edit area, we can't
** use an id=PageContent or class=wiki-content, so we must
** set the body style to that used for PageContent, and p to that used for wiki-content.
*/

body {
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ul, ol {
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    padding-top: 0px;
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pre {
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    margin-bottom: 5px;
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        border-bottom: 1px solid #3c78b5;
        padding: 4px 4px 4px 4px;
        margin: 0px;
        margin-top: 10px;
}
.helpcontent {
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.code {
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.code-keyword {
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.code-object {
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.code-quote {
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  background-color: inherit;
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.code-comment {
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  background-color: inherit;
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.code-xml .code-keyword {
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  font-weight: bold;
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.code-tag {
  color: #000091;
  background-color: inherit;
}

.breadcrumbs {
    background-color: #f0f0f0;
 	border-color: #3c78b5;
	border-width: 1px 0px 1px 0px;
	border-style: solid;
    font-size: 11px;
    padding: 3px 0px 3px 0px;
}

.navmenu {
    border: 1px solid #ccc;
}

.menuheading {
    font-weight: bold;
    background-color: #f0f0f0;
 	border-bottom: 1px solid #3c78b5;
	padding: 4px 4px 2px 4px;
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.menuitems {
	padding: 4px 4px 20px 4px;
}

.rightpanel {
    border-left: 1px solid #ccc;
    border-bottom: 1px solid #ccc;
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#helpheading {
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    background-color: #D0D9BD;
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	padding: 4px 4px 4px 4px;
	margin: 0px;
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#helpcontent {
	padding: 4px 4px 4px 4px;
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	padding: 4px 0px 2px 0px;
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.pagebody {
}

.pageheader {
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    margin-bottom: 7px;
}

.steplabel {
    font-weight: bold;
    margin-right: 4px;
    color: black;
    float: left;
    width: 15%;
    text-align: right;
}

.stepfield {
    background: #f0f0f0;
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}

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}
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}

HR {
	color: 3c78b5;
	height: 1;
}

A:link, A:visited, A:active, A:hover {
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}

h1 A:link, h1 A:visited, h1 A:active {
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}

h1 A:hover {
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.wiki-content > :first-child, .commentblock > :first-child {
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	margin: 0px;
}
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}
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    text-decoration: none;
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}
.spacenametitle a:visited {
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}*/

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	font: 20px/25px Impact, Arial, Helvetica;
    font-weight: 100;
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	margin: 0px;
}
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	margin: 1px 1px 10px 1px;
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    font-weight: bold;
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}

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   color: black;
}

.endsection {
	align: right;
	color: #666666;
	margin-top: 10px;
}
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h1 {
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h2 {
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}

h4.search {
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	line-height: normal;
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h5 {
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h6 {
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.smallfont {
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}
.surtitle {
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}

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.navItemOver { font-size: 10px; font-weight: bold; color: #ffffff; background-color: #003366;
cursor: hand; voice-family: '\'}\''; voice-family:inherit; cursor: pointer;}
.navItemOver a { color: #ffffff; background-color:#003366; text-decoration: none; }
.navItemOver a:visited { color: #ffffff; background-color:#003366; text-decoration: none;
}
.navItemOver a:hover { color: #ffffff; background-color:#003366; text-decoration: none; }
.navItem { font-size: 10px; font-weight: bold; color: #ffffff; background-color: #3c78b5;
}
.navItem a { color: #ffffff; text-decoration: none; }
.navItem a:hover { color: #ffffff; text-decoration: none; }
.navItem a:visited { color: #ffffff; text-decoration: none; }

div.padded { padding: 4px; }
div.thickPadded { padding: 10px; }
h3.macrolibrariestitle {
    margin: 0px 0px 0px 0px;
}

div.centered { text-align: center; margin: 10px; }
div.centered table {margin: 0px auto; text-align: left; }

.tableview table {
    margin: 0;
}

.tableview th {
    text-align: left;
    color: #003366;
    font-size: 12px;
    padding: 5px 0px 0px 5px;
    border-bottom: 2px solid #3c78b5;
}
.tableview td {
    text-align: left;
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    border-style: solid;
    margin: 0;
    padding: 4px 10px 4px 5px;
}

.grid {
    margin: 2px 0px 5px 0px;
    border-collapse: collapse;
}
.grid th  {
    border: 1px solid #ccc;
    padding: 2px 4px 2px 4px;
    background: #f0f0f0;
    text-align: center;
}
.grid td  {
    border: 1px solid #ccc;
    padding: 3px 4px 3px 4px;
}
.gridHover {
	background-color: #f9f9f9;
}

td.infocell {
    background-color: #f0f0f0;
}
.label {
	font-weight: bold;
	color: #003366;
}

label {
	font-weight: bold;
	color: #003366;
}

.error {
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}

.errorBox {
	background-color: #fcc;
    border: 1px solid #c00;
    padding: 5px;
    margin: 5px;
}

.errorMessage {
	color: #c00;
}

.success {
	background-color: #dfd;
}

.successBox {
	background-color: #dfd;
    border: 1px solid #090;
    padding: 5px;
    margin-top:5px;
    margin-bottom:5px;
}

blockquote {
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	padding-right: 10px;
	margin-left: 5px;
	margin-right: 0px;
	border-left: 1px solid #3c78b5;
}

table.confluenceTable
{
    margin: 5px;
    border-collapse: collapse;
}

/* Added as a temporary fix for CONF-4223. The table elements appear to be inheriting the
border: none attribute from the sectionMacro class */
table.confluenceTable td.confluenceTd
{
    border-width: 1px;
    border-style: solid;
    border-color: #ccc;
    padding: 3px 4px 3px 4px;
}

/* Added as a temporary fix for CONF-4223. The table elements appear to be inheriting the
border: none attribute from the sectionMacro class */
table.confluenceTable th.confluenceTh
{
    border-width: 1px;
    border-style: solid;
    border-color: #ccc;
    padding: 3px 4px 3px 4px;
    background-color: #f0f0f0;
    text-align: center;
}

td.confluenceTd
{
    border-width: 1px;
    border-style: solid;
    border-color: #ccc;
    padding: 3px 4px 3px 4px;
}

th.confluenceTh
{
    border-width: 1px;
    border-style: solid;
    border-color: #ccc;
    padding: 3px 4px 3px 4px;
    background-color: #f0f0f0;
    text-align: center;
}

DIV.small {
	font-size: 9px;
}

H1.pagename {
	margin-top: 0px;
}

IMG.inline  {}

.loginform {
    margin: 5px;
    border: 1px solid #ccc;
}

/* The text how the "This is a preview" comment should be shown. */
.previewnote { text-align: center;
                font-size: 11px;
                    color: red; }

/* How the preview content should be shown */
.previewcontent { background: #E0E0E0; }

/* How the system messages should be shown (DisplayMessage.jsp) */
.messagecontent { background: #E0E0E0; }

/* How the "This page has been modified..." -comment should be shown. */
.conflictnote { }

.createlink {
    color: maroon;
}
a.createlink {
    color: maroon;
}
.templateparameter {
    font-size: 9px;
    color: darkblue;
}

.diffadded {
    background: #ddffdd;
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	border-left: 4px solid darkgreen;
}
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	border-left: 4px solid darkred;
}
.diffnochange {
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}
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}
.diff {
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	font-size: 12px;
	line-height: 14px;
}
.diffaddedchars {
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    font-weight:bolder;
}
.diffremovedchars {
    background-color:#ff9999;
    text-decoration: line-through;
    font-weight:bolder;
}

.greybackground {
    background: #f0f0f0
}

.greybox {
 	border: 1px solid #ddd;
	padding: 3px;
	margin: 1px 1px 10px 1px;
}

.borderedGreyBox {
    border: 1px solid #cccccc;
    background-color: #f0f0f0;
    padding: 10px;
}

.greyboxfilled {
 	border: 1px solid #ddd;
    background: #f0f0f0;
    padding: 3px;
	margin: 1px 1px 10px 1px;
}

.navBackgroundBox {
    padding: 5px 5px 5px 5px;
    font-size: 22px;
	font-weight: bold;
	font-family: Arial, sans-serif;
	color: white;
    background: #3c78b5;
    text-decoration: none;
}

.previewBoxTop {
	background-color: #f0f0f0;
    border-width: 1px 1px 0px 1px;
    border-style: solid;
    border-color: #3c78b5;
    padding: 5px;
    margin: 5px 0px 0px 0px;
    text-align: center;
}
.previewContent {
    background-color: #fff;
 	border-color: #3c78b5;
	border-width: 0px 1px 0px 1px;
	border-style: solid;
	padding: 10px;
	margin: 0px;
}
.previewBoxBottom {
	background-color: #f0f0f0;
    border-width: 0px 1px 1px 1px;
    border-style: solid;
    border-color: #3c78b5;
    padding: 5px;
    margin: 0px 0px 5px 0px;
    text-align: center;
}

.functionbox {
    background-color: #f0f0f0;
 	border: 1px solid #3c78b5;
	padding: 3px;
	margin: 1px 1px 10px 1px;
}

.functionbox-greyborder {
    background-color: #f0f0f0;
 	border: 1px solid #ddd;
	padding: 3px;
	margin: 1px 1px 10px 1px;
}

.search-highlight {
    background-color: #ffffcc;
}

/* normal (white) background */
.rowNormal {
    background-color: #ffffff;
 }

/* alternate (pale yellow) background */
.rowAlternate {
    background-color: #f7f7f7;
}

/* used in the list attachments table */
.rowAlternateNoBottomColor {
    background-color: #f7f7f7;
}

.rowAlternateNoBottomNoColor {
}

.rowAlternateNoBottomColor td {
    border-bottom: 0px;
}

.rowAlternateNoBottomNoColor td {
    border-bottom: 0px;
}

/* row highlight (grey) background */
.rowHighlight {
    background-color: #f0f0f0;

}

TD.greenbar {FONT-SIZE: 2px; BACKGROUND: #00df00; BORDER: 1px solid #9c9c9c; PADDING: 0px;
}
TD.redbar {FONT-SIZE: 2px; BACKGROUND: #df0000; BORDER: 1px solid #9c9c9c; PADDING: 0px; }
TD.darkredbar {FONT-SIZE: 2px; BACKGROUND: #af0000; BORDER: 1px solid #9c9c9c; PADDING: 0px;
}

TR.testpassed {FONT-SIZE: 2px; BACKGROUND: #ddffdd; PADDING: 0px; }
TR.testfailed {FONT-SIZE: 2px; BACKGROUND: #ffdddd; PADDING: 0px; }

.toolbar  {
    margin: 0px;
    border-collapse: collapse;
}

.toolbar td  {
    border: 1px solid #ccc;
    padding: 2px 2px 2px 2px;
    color: #ccc;
}

td.noformatting {
    border-width: 0px;
    border-style: none;
    text-align: center;
	padding: 0px;
}

.commentblock {
    margin: 12px 0 12px 0;
}

/*
 * Divs displaying the license information, if necessary.
 */
.license-eval, .license-none, .license-nonprofit {
    border-top: 1px solid #bbbbbb;
    text-align: center;
    font-size: 10px;
    font-family: Verdana, Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif;
}

.license-eval, .license-none {
    background-color: #ffcccc;
}

.license-eval b, .license-none b {
    color: #990000
}

.license-nonprofit {
    background-color: #ffffff;
}

/*
 * The shadow at the bottom of the page between the main content and the
 * "powered by" section.
 */
.bottomshadow {
    height: 12px;
    background-image: url("$req.contextPath/images/border/border_bottom.gif");
    background-repeat: repeat-x;
}

/*
 * Styling of the operations box
 */
.navmenu .operations li, .navmenu .operations ul {
    list-style: none;
    margin-left: 0;
    padding-left: 0;
}

.navmenu .operations ul {
    margin-bottom: 9px;
}

.navmenu .label {
    font-weight: inherit;
}

/*
 * Styling of ops as a toolbar
 */
.toolbar div {
    display: none;
}

.toolbar .label {
    display: none;
}

.toolbar .operations {
    display: block;
}

.toolbar .operations ul {
    display: inline;
    list-style: none;
    margin-left: 10px;
    padding-left: 0;
}

.toolbar .operations li {
    list-style: none;
    display: inline;
}

/* list page navigational tabs */
#foldertab {
padding: 3px 0px 3px 8px;
margin-left: 0;
border-bottom: 1px solid #3c78b5;
font: bold 11px Verdana, sans-serif;
}

#foldertab li {
list-style: none;
margin: 0;
display: inline;
}

#foldertab li a {
padding: 3px 0.5em;
margin-left: 3px;
border: 1px solid #3c78b5;
border-bottom: none;
background: #3c78b5;
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</head>
<body>

<div id="PageContent">
<table class="pagecontent" border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" width="100%"><tr>
<td valign="top" class="pagebody">

    <div class="pageheader">
        <span class="pagetitle">
            Page Edited :
            <a href="http://cwiki.apache.org/confluence/display/CAYDOC">CAYDOC</a>
:
            <a href="http://cwiki.apache.org/confluence/display/CAYDOC/Prefetching">Prefetching</a>
        </span>
    </div>

     <p>
        <a href="http://cwiki.apache.org/confluence/display/CAYDOC/Prefetching">Prefetching</a>
        has been edited by             <a href="http://cwiki.apache.org/confluence/display/~andrus">Andrus
Adamchik</a>
            <span class="smallfont">(Aug 26, 2008)</span>.
     </p>
    
     <p>
                 <a href="http://cwiki.apache.org/confluence/pages/diffpagesbyversion.action?pageId=10636&originalVersion=5&revisedVersion=6">(View
changes)</a>
     </p>

    <span class="label">Content:</span><br/>
    <div class="greybox wiki-content"><h3><a name="Prefetching-IntroductiontoPrefetching"></a>Introduction
to Prefetching</h3>

<p>Prefetching is a performance optimization technique that allows to bring back more
than one type of objects in a single query. Prefetches are configured in terms of relationship
paths from the query root entity to the "prefetched" entity. E.g.:</p>

<div class="code"><div class="codeContent">
<pre class="code-java"><span class="code-comment">// configure query with prefetches
</span>SelectQuery query = <span class="code-keyword">new</span> SelectQuery(Artist.class);
query.addPrefetch(<span class="code-quote">"paintingArray"</span>); 
...
<span class="code-comment">// execute query and <span class="code-keyword">do</span>
something with results
</span>List artists = context.performQuery(query);
Iterator it = artists.iterator();
<span class="code-keyword">while</span>(it.hasNext()) {
  Artist a = (Artist) it.next();
  <span class="code-object">System</span>.out.println(<span class="code-quote">"paintings:
"</span> + a.getPaintingArray().size());
}</pre>
</div></div>

<p>When prefetching is set, corresponding relationships are "inflated" with database
objects within a single <tt>performQuery</tt> run, leaving it up to Cayenne to
optimize retrieval of multiple entities. For instance the example above results in just two
SQL queries issued to the database internally, while running the same query without a prefetch
and later iterating over artists will result in <tt>1 + N</tt> queries, where
<tt>N</tt> is the number of artists returned. </p>

<h3><a name="Prefetching-PrefetchingHints"></a>Prefetching Hints</h3>

<ul>
	<li>All types of relationships can be prefetched - to-one, to-many, flattened.</li>
	<li>A prefetch can span more than one relationship:
<div class="code"><div class="codeContent">
<pre class="code-java">query.addPrefetch(<span class="code-quote">"paintingArray.toGallery"</span>);</pre>
</div></div></li>
	<li>A query can have more than one prefetch path at the same time:
<div class="code"><div class="codeContent">
<pre class="code-java">query.addPrefetch(<span class="code-quote">"paintingArray"</span>);

query.addPrefetch(<span class="code-quote">"paintingArray.toGallery"</span>);</pre>
</div></div></li>
	<li><font color="red">PREFETCH LIMITATION:</font> To-many relationships
should not be prefetched if a query qualifier can potentially reduce a number of related objects,
resulting in incorrect relationship list. E.g.:
<div class="code"><div class="codeContent">
<pre class="code-java">SelectQuery query = <span class="code-keyword">new</span>
SelectQuery(Artist.class);

Expression exp = ExpressionFactory.matchExp(<span class="code-quote">"paintingArray.paintingTitle"</span>,
<span class="code-quote">"Some Painting"</span>);

<span class="code-comment">// INVALID!! since there can be more than one painting per
artist, <span class="code-keyword">this</span> prefetch
</span><span class="code-comment">// wouldn't work.
</span>query.addPrefetch(<span class="code-quote">"paintingArray"</span>);</pre>
</div></div>
<p>In the future versions of Cayenne this will be addressed by using SQL subqueries.
For now it is programmer's responsibility to avoid such prefetches.</p></li>
	<li>If SelectQuery is fetching data rows, all default prefetches are ignored, though
custom joint prefetches (see below) will be included.</li>
	<li>When you customize SelectQuery prefetches to use joint semantics (see below how
customization can be done), be aware that joint prefetch adds an extra inner join to the main
query. This may result in fewer objects returned than expected. If you are SQL-savvy it may
be helpful to think of disjoint prefetches as analogous to SQL outer joins and joint prefetches
- to SQL inner joins.</li>
</ul>


<p><em>The rest of this page describes advanced use and can be skipped.</em></p>


<h3><a name="Prefetching-PrefetchSemantics"></a>Prefetch Semantics</h3>

<p><em>(semantics flavors were introduced in 1.2M3, with some changes in 1.2M8)</em></p>

<p>Queries store prefetching information as trees of <tt>PrefetchTreeNode</tt>
objects:</p>

<div class="code"><div class="codeContent">
<pre class="code-java">PrefetchTreeNode treeRoot = query.getPrefetchTree();
<span class="code-keyword">if</span>(treeRoot != <span class="code-keyword">null</span>)
{
  <span class="code-comment">// <span class="code-keyword">do</span> something
with tree nodes
</span>}</pre>
</div></div>

<p>Each node specifies the name of prefetch path segment and execution semantics. There
are two flavors of prefetch semantics - <b>joint</b> and <b>disjoint</b>.
Semantics of each node is initially determined by Cayenne when a new prefetch path is added,
and can be later customized by the user (e.g., see joint example below).</p>

<table cellpadding='5' width='85%' cellspacing='8px' class='noteMacro' border="0" align='center'><colgroup><col
width='24'><col></colgroup><tr><td valign='top'><img src="/confluence/images/icons/emoticons/warning.gif"
width="16" height="16" align="absmiddle" alt="" border="0"></td><td>
<p>In most cases prefetch semantics is of no concern to the users. Cayenne will do its
best to configure the right semantics on the fly. Don't tweak semantics unless you understand
the implications and have some proof that different semantics would result in better select
performance on your database. </p></td></tr></table>

<p>Some internal semantics rules:</p>

<ul>
	<li>SelectQuery uses disjoint prefetches by default.</li>
	<li>SQLTemplate and ProcedureQuery use joint prefetches and can not use disjoint semantics
due to their nature.</li>
	<li>Prefetches with different semantics can be mixed freely within a query, as long
as there is no conflict with other rules.</li>
</ul>



<h3><a name="Prefetching-DisjointPrefetches"></a>Disjoint Prefetches</h3>

<p>"Disjoint" prefetches (aka "normal prefetches", as this is how Cayenne implemented
prefetching since 1.0) internally result in a separate SQL statement per prefetch path.</p>

<div class="code"><div class="codeContent">
<pre class="code-java">SelectQuery query = <span class="code-keyword">new</span>
SelectQuery(Artist.class);

<span class="code-comment">// <span class="code-quote">"disjoint"</span>
is <span class="code-keyword">default</span> semantics of SelectQuery
</span>query.addPrefetch(<span class="code-quote">"paintingArray"</span>);

query.addPrefetch(<span class="code-quote">"paintingArray.toGallery"</span>);

<span class="code-comment">// <span class="code-keyword">this</span> will
result in 1 main SQL query plus 2 extra prefetch queries
</span>context.performQuery(query);</pre>
</div></div>

<h3><a name="Prefetching-JointPrefetches"></a>Joint Prefetches</h3>

<p>"Joint" is prefetch type that issues a single SQL statement for multiple prefetch
paths. Cayenne processes in memory a cartesian product of the entities involved, converting
it to an object tree. SQLTemplate and ProcedureQuery create joint prefetches by default. SelectQuery
needs to be told to use joint prefetch:</p>

<div class="code"><div class="codeContent">
<pre class="code-java"><span class="code-comment">// after adding a <span class="code-keyword">new</span>
prefetch, change its semantics to joint
</span>query.addPrefetch(<span class="code-quote">"paintingArray"</span>).setSemantics(
                PrefetchTreeNode.JOINT_PREFETCH_SEMANTICS);

context.performQuery(query);</pre>
</div></div>

<p>Code above will result in a single SQL statement issued. Inner joins will be used
for this type of prefetch, so no Artist will be returned who has no Paintings. Specifics of
the column naming when using prefetching with SQLTemplate are discussed <a href="/confluence/display/CAYDOC/Advanced+SQLTemplate"
title="Advanced SQLTemplate">here</a>.</p>
</div>


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