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From "Tim Broberg (Commented) (JIRA)" <j...@apache.org>
Subject [jira] [Commented] (HADOOP-7909) Implement Splittable Gzip based on a signature in a gzip header field
Date Mon, 12 Dec 2011 20:03:33 GMT

    [ https://issues.apache.org/jira/browse/HADOOP-7909?page=com.atlassian.jira.plugin.system.issuetabpanels:comment-tabpanel&focusedCommentId=13167741#comment-13167741

Tim Broberg commented on HADOOP-7909:

Still doing mental experiments here, I'm not advocating a particular approach yet...

1 - Is there a fallback if we "fail" to split? What happens if a split "fails?" Consider the
second and subsequent splits. They searches from the start offset to then end and find no
signatures, so they output 0 bytes. The first split starts output from offset 0 and extends
his end until he finds a signature or hits EOF, so he outputs the whole thing. In this case,
by using the splittable decode for a non-splittable stream, we waste time searching for split
headers that don't exist, but the output is correct. Not ideal, but not fatal either. If it
were a rare phenomenon to mix splittable and non-splittable, this might make sense, but probably

2 - Can we failover to HADOOP-7076? What if the first split "succeeds" and the seonds "fails."
For HADOOP-7076, I imagine handling this by attempting to decode each split with the signature
approach, and searching up to some reasonable max block size (1MB? 2MB?) for a max search
time of ~1us. If we are unable to find a splittable gzip header at this point, or at any subsequent
point when we look at the next gzip header, we fail over from the block-mode regime to the
stream-mode regime of the HADOOP-7076 decoder for the remainder of that split.

I guess my current problem with approach #2 here is a mismatch in buffering / caching needs
between the two approaches. The block approach wants nice big buffers, and the signature search
will walk over a significant amount of data before failing. We don't want to read this data
twice. For each fail, it's wasteful to load up O(1MB) of data just to feed it into a stream
decompressor that is perfectly happy to process the data in 4k hunks. Multiply that 1MB by
the number of open compression streams, and this could add up to some pretty significant overhead
for no real gain.

I'm trying to avoid adding to the complexity of the interface with more codecs and formats,
but the costs aren't seeming like they are worth the benefits to me at this point.

I'm inclined to call it a different format as Niels originally suggested, despite the fact
that it is read-compatible with .gz's.

> Implement Splittable Gzip based on a signature in a gzip header field
> ---------------------------------------------------------------------
>                 Key: HADOOP-7909
>                 URL: https://issues.apache.org/jira/browse/HADOOP-7909
>             Project: Hadoop Common
>          Issue Type: New Feature
>          Components: io
>            Reporter: Tim Broberg
>            Priority: Minor
>   Original Estimate: 672h
>  Remaining Estimate: 672h
> I propose to take the suggestion of PIG-42 extend it to
>  - add a more robust header such that false matches are vanishingly unlikely
>  - repeat initial bytes of the header for very fast split searching
>  - break down the stream into modest size chunks (~64k?) for rapid parallel encode and
>  - provide length information on the blocks in advance to make block decode possible
in hardware
> An optional extra header would be added to the gzip header, adding 36 bytes.
> <sh> := <version><signature><uncompressedDataLength><compressedRecordLength>
> <version> := 1 byte version field allowing us to later adjust the deader definition
> <signature> := 23 byte signature of the form aaaaaaabcdefghijklmnopr where each
letter represents a randomly generated byte
> <uncompressedDataLength> := 32-bit length of the data compressed into this record
> <compressedRecordLength> := 32-bit length of this record as compressed, including
all headers, trailers
> If multiple extra headers are present and the split header is not the first header, the
initial implementation will not recognize the split.
> Input streams would be broken down into blocks which are appended, much as BlockCompressorStream
does. Non-split-aware decoders will ignore this header and decode the appended blocks without
ever noticing the difference.
> The signature has >= 132 bits of entropy which is sufficient for 80+ years of Moore's
law before collisions become a significant concern.
> The first 7 bytes are repeated for speed. When splitting, the signature search will look
for the 32-bit value aaaa every 4 bytes until a hit is found, then the next 4 bytes identify
the alignment of the header mod 4 to identify a potential header match, then the whole header
is validated at that offset. So, there is a load, compare, branch, and increment per 4 bytes
> The existing gzip implementations do not provide access to the optional header fields
(nor comment nor filename), so the entire gzip header will have to be reimplemented and compression
will need to be done using the raw deflate options of the native library / built in deflater.
> There will be some degradation when using splittable gzip:
>  - The gzip headers will each be 36 bytes larger. (4 byte extra header header, 32 byte
extra header)
>  - There will be one gzip header per block.
>  - History will have to be reset with each block to allow starting from scratch at that
offset resulting in some uncompressed bytes that would otherwise have been strings.
> Issues to consider:
>  - Is the searching fast enough without the repeating 7 bytes in the signature?
>  - Should this be a patch to the existing gzip classes to add a switch, or should this
be a whole new class?
>  - Which level does this belong at? CompressionStream? Compressor?
>  - Is it more advantageous to encode the signature into the less dense comment field?
>  - Optimum block size? Smaller splits faster and may conserve memory, larger provides
slightly better compression ratio.

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