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Subject [libcloud] 01/06: Add docs on using type annotations.
Date Thu, 05 Dec 2019 19:36:46 GMT
This is an automated email from the ASF dual-hosted git repository.

tomaz pushed a commit to branch trunk
in repository

commit c88c9c699b00b57d2ac1c0395aba9c1cfa74b465
Author: Tomaz Muraus <>
AuthorDate: Thu Dec 5 20:19:30 2019 +0100

    Add docs on using type annotations.
 docs/developer_information.rst           | 28 +++++++++++++++++++
 docs/examples/compute/ | 48 ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
 2 files changed, 76 insertions(+)

diff --git a/docs/developer_information.rst b/docs/developer_information.rst
index a91ad84..57da5ab 100644
--- a/docs/developer_information.rst
+++ b/docs/developer_information.rst
@@ -1,6 +1,34 @@
 Developer Information
+Type Annotations
+Python type annotations / hints for the base Libcloud compute API have been
+added in v2.7.0.
+The goal behind type annotations is to make developer lives easier by
+introducing optional static typing for Python programs.
+This allows you to catch bugs and issues which are related to variable types
+earlier and faster (aka when you run ``mypy`` locally either manually or
+integrated in your editor / IDE and also as part of you CI/CD build
+An example of how to use type annotations correctly is shown below.
+.. literalinclude:: /examples/compute/
+If you are using driver methods which are not part of the Libcloud standard
+API, you need to use ``cast()`` method as shown below to cast the driver class
+to the correct type. If you don't do that, ``mypy`` will only be aware of the
+methods which are part of the Libcloud base compute API (aka
+``BaseNodeDriver`` class).
+This is needed because of how Libcloud utilizes meta programming for the
+``get_driver()`` and related methods (there is no other way without writing
+a mypy plugin to achieve that).
 .. _mailing-lists:
 Mailing Lists
diff --git a/docs/examples/compute/ b/docs/examples/compute/
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..92b2202
--- /dev/null
+++ b/docs/examples/compute/
@@ -0,0 +1,48 @@
+# Licensed to the Apache Software Foundation (ASF) under one or more
+# contributor license agreements.  See the NOTICE file distributed with
+# this work for additional information regarding copyright ownership.
+# The ASF licenses this file to You under the Apache License, Version 2.0
+# (the "License"); you may not use this file except in compliance with
+# the License.  You may obtain a copy of the License at
+# Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
+# distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS,
+# See the License for the specific language governing permissions and
+# limitations under the License.
+from libcloud.compute.types import Provider
+from libcloud.compute.providers import get_driver
+from libcloud.compute.drivers.ec2 import EC2NodeDriver
+from libcloud.compute.drivers.rackspace import RackspaceNodeDriver
+from typing import Type, cast
+ec2_cls = get_driver(Provider.EC2)
+rackspace_cls = get_driver(Provider.RACKSPACE)
+# NOTE: If you are using driver methods which are not part of the standard API,
+# you need to explicitly cast the driver class reference to the correct class
+# for type checking to work correctly
+EC2 = cast(Type[EC2NodeDriver], ec2_cls)
+Rackspace = cast(Type[RackspaceNodeDriver], rackspace_cls)
+drivers = [EC2('access key id', 'secret key', region='us-east-1'),
+           Rackspace('username', 'api key', region='iad')]
+nodes = []
+for driver in drivers:
+    nodes.extend(driver.list_nodes())
+# [ <Node: provider=Amazon, status=RUNNING, name=bob, ip=>,
+# <Node: provider=Rackspace, status=REBOOT, name=korine, ip=>, ... ]
+# grab the node named "test"
+node = [n for n in nodes if == 'test'][0]
+# reboot "test"

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