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From "Michael McCandless (JIRA)" <>
Subject [jira] [Created] (LUCENE-7583) Can we improve OutputStreamIndexOutput's byte buffering when writing each BKD leaf block?
Date Tue, 06 Dec 2016 11:11:36 GMT
Michael McCandless created LUCENE-7583:

             Summary: Can we improve OutputStreamIndexOutput's byte buffering when writing
each BKD leaf block?
                 Key: LUCENE-7583
             Project: Lucene - Core
          Issue Type: Improvement
            Reporter: Michael McCandless
             Fix For: master (7.0), 6.4
         Attachments: LUCENE-7583.patch

When BKD writes its leaf blocks, it's essentially a lot of tiny writes (vint, int, short,
etc.), and I've seen deep thread stacks through our IndexOutput impl ({{OutputStreamIndexOutput}})
when pulling hot threads while BKD is writing.

So I tried a small change, to have BKDWriter do its own buffering, by first writing each leaf
block into a {{RAMOutputStream}}, and then dumping that (in 1 KB byte[] chunks) to the actual

This gives a non-trivial reduction (~6%) in the total time for BKD writing + merging time
on the 20M NYC taxis nightly benchmark (2 times each):

Trunk, sparse:
  - total: 64.691 sec
  - total: 64.702 sec

Patch, sparse:
  - total: 60.820 sec
  - total: 60.965 sec

Trunk dense:
  - total: 62.730 sec
  - total: 62.383 sec

Patch dense:
  - total: 58.805 sec
  - total: 58.742 sec

The results seem to be consistent and reproducible.  I'm using Java 1.8.0_101 on a fast SSD
on Ubuntu 16.04.

It's sort of weird and annoying that this helps so much, because {{OutputStreamIndexOutput}}
already uses java's {{BufferedOutputStream}} (default 8 KB buffer) to buffer writes.

[~thetaphi] suggested maybe hotspot is failing to inline/optimize the {{writeByte}} / the
call stack just has too many layers.

We could commit this patch (it's trivial) but it'd be nice to understand and fix why buffering
writes is somehow costly so any other Lucene codec components that write lots of little things
can be improved too.

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