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From awh...@apache.org
Subject svn commit: r434517 [5/23] - in /incubator/openjpa/trunk: openjpa-kernel/src/main/java/org/apache/openjpa/meta/ openjpa-lib/src/main/java/org/apache/openjpa/lib/meta/ openjpa-project/src/doc/manual/
Date Thu, 24 Aug 2006 20:41:14 GMT
Modified: incubator/openjpa/trunk/openjpa-project/src/doc/manual/jpa_overview_meta.xml
URL: http://svn.apache.org/viewvc/incubator/openjpa/trunk/openjpa-project/src/doc/manual/jpa_overview_meta.xml?rev=434517&r1=434516&r2=434517&view=diff
==============================================================================
--- incubator/openjpa/trunk/openjpa-project/src/doc/manual/jpa_overview_meta.xml (original)
+++ incubator/openjpa/trunk/openjpa-project/src/doc/manual/jpa_overview_meta.xml Thu Aug 24 13:41:12 2006
@@ -1,335 +1,414 @@
-
-    <chapter id="jpa_overview_meta">
-      <title>Metadata</title>
-      <indexterm zone="jpa_overview_meta">
-        <primary>metadata</primary>
-      </indexterm>
-      <indexterm zone="jpa_overview_meta">
-        <primary>JPA</primary>
-        <secondary>metadata</secondary>
-        <seealso>metadata</seealso>
-      </indexterm>
-      <para>
-  JPA requires that you accompany each persistent class with
-  persistence metadata.  This metadata serves three primary purposes:
-  </para>
-      <orderedlist>
+<chapter id="jpa_overview_meta">
+    <title>
+        Metadata
+    </title>
+    <indexterm zone="jpa_overview_meta">
+        <primary>
+            metadata
+        </primary>
+    </indexterm>
+    <indexterm zone="jpa_overview_meta">
+        <primary>
+            JPA
+        </primary>
+        <secondary>
+            metadata
+        </secondary>
+        <seealso>
+            metadata
+        </seealso>
+    </indexterm>
+    <para>
+JPA requires that you accompany each persistent class with persistence metadata.
+This metadata serves three primary purposes:
+    </para>
+    <orderedlist>
         <listitem>
-          <para>To identify persistent classes.</para>
+            <para>
+To identify persistent classes.
+            </para>
         </listitem>
         <listitem>
-          <para>To override default JPA behavior.</para>
+            <para>
+To override default JPA behavior.
+            </para>
         </listitem>
         <listitem>
-          <para>
-      To provide the JPA implementation with information that
-      it cannot glean from simply reflecting on the persistent class.
-      </para>
+            <para>
+To provide the JPA implementation with information that it cannot glean from
+simply reflecting on the persistent class.
+            </para>
         </listitem>
-      </orderedlist>
-      <para><indexterm><primary>annotations</primary></indexterm>
-  Persistence metadata is specified using either the Java 5 annotations 
-  defined in the <literal>javax.persistence</literal> package, XML
-  mapping files, or a mixture of both.  In the latter case, XML declarations
-  override conflicting annotations.  If you choose to use XML metadata, the 
-  XML files must be available at development and runtime, and must be 
-  discoverable via either of two strategies:
-  </para>
-      <orderedlist>
+    </orderedlist>
+    <para>
+    <indexterm>
+        <primary>
+            annotations
+        </primary>
+    </indexterm>
+Persistence metadata is specified using either the Java 5 annotations defined in
+the <literal>javax.persistence</literal> package, XML mapping files, or a
+mixture of both. In the latter case, XML declarations override conflicting
+annotations. If you choose to use XML metadata, the XML files must be available
+at development and runtime, and must be discoverable via either of two
+strategies:
+    </para>
+    <orderedlist>
         <listitem>
-          <para>
-      In a resource named <filename>orm.xml</filename> placed in
-      the <filename>META-INF</filename> directory of the classpath
-      or the jar archive containing your persistent classes.
-      </para>
+            <para>
+In a resource named <filename>orm.xml</filename> placed in the <filename>
+META-INF</filename> directory of the classpath or the jar archive containing
+your persistent classes.
+            </para>
         </listitem>
         <listitem>
-          <para>
-      Declared in your <link linkend="jpa_overview_persistence_xml"><filename>persistence.xml</filename></link> configuration file.  
-      In this case, each XML metadata file must be 
-      listed in a <literal>mapping-file</literal> element whose 
-      content is either a path to the given file or a resource 
-      location available to the class' class loader.
-      </para>
+            <para>
+Declared in your <link linkend="jpa_overview_persistence_xml"><filename>
+persistence.xml</filename></link> configuration file. In this case, each XML
+metadata file must be listed in a <literal>mapping-file</literal> element whose
+content is either a path to the given file or a resource location available to
+the class' class loader.
+            </para>
         </listitem>
-      </orderedlist>
-      <para>
-  We describe the standard metadata annotations and XML equivalents throughout
-  this chapter.  The full schema for XML mapping files is available in
-  <xref linkend="jpa_overview_meta_xml"/>.
-  JPA also standardizes relational mapping metadata and named 
-  query metadata, which we discuss in <xref linkend="jpa_overview_mapping"/>
-  and <xref linkend="jpa_overview_query_named"/> respectively. 
-  </para>
-      <note>
-        <para>
-    OpenJPA defines many useful annotations beyond the standard set.  See
-    <xref linkend="ref_guide_meta_ejb"/> and 
-    <xref linkend="ref_guide_meta_ext"/> in the Reference Guide for details.
-    <!-- ### EJB -->
-    There are currently no XML equivalents for these extension annotations.
+    </orderedlist>
+    <para>
+We describe the standard metadata annotations and XML equivalents throughout
+this chapter. The full schema for XML mapping files is available in
+<xref linkend="jpa_overview_meta_xml"></xref>. JPA also standardizes relational
+mapping metadata and named query metadata, which we discuss in
+<xref linkend="jpa_overview_mapping"></xref> and
+<xref linkend="jpa_overview_query_named"></xref> respectively.
     </para>
-      </note>
-      <mediaobject>
+    <note>
+        <para>
+OpenJPA defines many useful annotations beyond the standard set. See
+<xref linkend="ref_guide_meta_jpa"></xref> and
+<xref linkend="ref_guide_meta_ext"></xref>
+in the Reference Guide for details. There are currently no XML equivalents for
+these extension annotations.
+        </para>
+    </note>
+    <mediaobject>
         <imageobject>
-<!-- PNG image data, 553 x 580 (see README) -->
-          <imagedata fileref="img/jpa-meta-model.png" width="369"/>
+            <!-- PNG image data, 553 x 580 (see README) -->
+            <imagedata fileref="img/jpa-meta-model.png" width="369">
+            </imagedata>
         </imageobject>
-      </mediaobject>
-      <para>
-  Through the course of this chapter, we will create the persistent object 
-  model above.
-  </para>
-      <section id="jpa_overview_meta_class">
-        <title>Class Metadata</title>
-        <para>
-    The following metadata annotations and XML elements apply to persistent
-    class declarations.
+    </mediaobject>
+    <para>
+Through the course of this chapter, we will create the persistent object model
+above.
     </para>
-        <section id="jpa_overview_meta_entity">
-          <title>Entity</title>
-          <indexterm zone="jpa_overview_meta_entity">
-            <primary>Entity</primary>
-            <secondary>annotation</secondary>
-          </indexterm>
-          <indexterm zone="jpa_overview_meta_entity">
-            <primary>metadata</primary>
-            <secondary>Entity</secondary>
-          </indexterm>
-          <indexterm zone="jpa_overview_meta_entity">
-            <primary>annotations</primary>
-            <secondary>Entity</secondary>
-          </indexterm>
-          <para>
-      The <classname>Entity</classname> annotation denotes an entity 
-      class.  All entity classes must have this annotation.  The 
-      <classname>Entity</classname> annotation takes one optional 
-      property:
-      </para>
-          <itemizedlist>
-            <listitem>
-              <para><literal>String name</literal>: Name used to refer to the 
-          entity in queries. Must not be a reserved literal 
-          in JPQL.  Defaults to the unqualified name of the entity 
-          class.
-          </para>
-            </listitem>
-          </itemizedlist>
-          <para>
-      The equivalent XML element is <literal>entity</literal>.  It has
-      the following attributes:
-      </para>
-          <itemizedlist>
-            <listitem>
-              <para><literal>class</literal>: The entity class.  This attribute
-          is required.
-          </para>
-            </listitem>
-            <listitem>
-              <para><literal>name</literal>: Named used to refer to the class in
-          queries.  See the name property above.
-          </para>
-            </listitem>
-            <listitem>
-              <para><literal>access</literal>: The access type to use for the
-          class.  Must either be <literal>FIELD</literal> or
-          <literal>PROPERTY</literal>.  For details on access 
-          types, see <xref linkend="jpa_overview_meta_field"/>.
-          </para>
-            </listitem>
-          </itemizedlist>
-          <note>
-            <para>
-        OpenJPA uses a process called <emphasis>enhancement</emphasis> to
-        modify the bytecode of entities for transparent
-        lazy loading and immediate dirty tracking.  See 
-        <xref linkend="ref_guide_pc_enhance"/> in the Reference Guide
-        for details on enhancement.
+    <section id="jpa_overview_meta_class">
+        <title>
+            Class Metadata
+        </title>
+        <para>
+The following metadata annotations and XML elements apply to persistent class
+declarations.
         </para>
-          </note>
+        <section id="jpa_overview_meta_entity">
+            <title>
+                Entity
+            </title>
+            <indexterm zone="jpa_overview_meta_entity">
+                <primary>
+                    Entity
+                </primary>
+                <secondary>
+                    annotation
+                </secondary>
+            </indexterm>
+            <indexterm zone="jpa_overview_meta_entity">
+                <primary>
+                    metadata
+                </primary>
+                <secondary>
+                    Entity
+                </secondary>
+            </indexterm>
+            <indexterm zone="jpa_overview_meta_entity">
+                <primary>
+                    annotations
+                </primary>
+                <secondary>
+                    Entity
+                </secondary>
+            </indexterm>
+            <para>
+The <classname>Entity</classname> annotation denotes an entity class. All entity
+classes must have this annotation. The <classname>Entity</classname> annotation
+takes one optional property:
+            </para>
+            <itemizedlist>
+                <listitem>
+                    <para>
+<literal>String name</literal>: Name used to refer to the entity in queries.
+Must not be a reserved literal in JPQL. Defaults to the unqualified name of the
+entity class.
+                    </para>
+                </listitem>
+            </itemizedlist>
+            <para>
+The equivalent XML element is <literal>entity</literal>. It has the following
+attributes:
+            </para>
+            <itemizedlist>
+                <listitem>
+                    <para>
+<literal>class</literal>: The entity class. This attribute is required.
+                    </para>
+                </listitem>
+                <listitem>
+                    <para>
+<literal>name</literal>: Named used to refer to the class in queries. See the
+name property above.
+                    </para>
+                </listitem>
+                <listitem>
+                    <para>
+<literal>access</literal>: The access type to use for the class. Must either be
+<literal>FIELD</literal> or <literal>PROPERTY</literal>. For details on access
+types, see <xref linkend="jpa_overview_meta_field"></xref>.
+                    </para>
+                </listitem>
+            </itemizedlist>
+            <note>
+                <para>
+OpenJPA uses a process called <emphasis>enhancement</emphasis> to modify the
+bytecode of entities for transparent lazy loading and immediate dirty tracking.
+See <xref linkend="ref_guide_pc_enhance"></xref> in the Reference Guide for
+details on enhancement.
+                </para>
+            </note>
         </section>
         <section id="jpa_overview_meta_idclass">
-          <title>Id Class</title>
-          <indexterm zone="jpa_overview_meta_idclass">
-            <primary>IdClass</primary>
-          </indexterm>
-          <indexterm zone="jpa_overview_meta_idclass">
-            <primary>metadata</primary>
-            <secondary>IdClass</secondary>
-          </indexterm>
-          <indexterm zone="jpa_overview_meta_idclass">
-            <primary>annotations</primary>
-            <secondary>IdClass</secondary>
-          </indexterm>
-          <para>
-      As we discussed in <xref linkend="jpa_overview_pc_identitycls"/>,
-      entities with multiple identity fields must use an <emphasis>
-      identity class</emphasis> to encapsulate their persistent identity.
-      The <classname>IdClass</classname> annotation specifies this class.
-      It accepts a single <classname>java.lang.Class</classname> value.
-      </para>
-          <para>
-      The equivalent XML element is <literal>id-class</literal>, which has
-      a single attribute:
-      </para>
-          <itemizedlist>
-            <listitem>
-              <para><literal>class</literal>: This required attribute lists
-          the class name for the identity class.
-          </para>
-            </listitem>
-          </itemizedlist>
+            <title>
+                Id Class
+            </title>
+            <indexterm zone="jpa_overview_meta_idclass">
+                <primary>
+                    IdClass
+                </primary>
+            </indexterm>
+            <indexterm zone="jpa_overview_meta_idclass">
+                <primary>
+                    metadata
+                </primary>
+                <secondary>
+                    IdClass
+                </secondary>
+            </indexterm>
+            <indexterm zone="jpa_overview_meta_idclass">
+                <primary>
+                    annotations
+                </primary>
+                <secondary>
+                    IdClass
+                </secondary>
+            </indexterm>
+            <para>
+As we discussed in <xref linkend="jpa_overview_pc_identitycls"></xref>,
+entities with multiple identity fields must use an <emphasis> identity class
+</emphasis> to encapsulate their persistent identity. The <classname>IdClass
+</classname> annotation specifies this class. It accepts a single <classname>
+java.lang.Class</classname> value.
+            </para>
+            <para>
+The equivalent XML element is <literal>id-class</literal>, which has a single
+attribute:
+            </para>
+            <itemizedlist>
+                <listitem>
+                    <para>
+<literal>class</literal>: This required attribute lists the class name for the
+identity class.
+                    </para>
+                </listitem>
+            </itemizedlist>
         </section>
         <section id="jpa_overview_meta_embeddablesuper">
-          <title>Mapped Superclass</title>
-          <indexterm zone="jpa_overview_meta_embeddablesuper">
-            <primary>MappedSuperclass</primary>
-          </indexterm>
-          <indexterm zone="jpa_overview_meta_embeddablesuper">
-            <primary>metadata</primary>
-            <secondary>MappedSuperclass</secondary>
-          </indexterm>
-          <indexterm zone="jpa_overview_meta_embeddablesuper">
-            <primary>annotations</primary>
-            <secondary>MappedSuperclass</secondary>
-          </indexterm>
-          <para>
-      A <emphasis>mapped superclass</emphasis> is a non-entity
-      class that can define persistent state and mapping information for
-      entity subclasses.  Mapped superclasses are usually abstract.
-      Unlike true entities, you cannot query a mapped superclass, 
-      pass a mapped superclass instance to any 
-      <classname>EntityManager</classname> or <classname>Query</classname>
-      methods, or declare a persistent relation with a mapped 
-      superclass target.  
-      You denote a mapped superclass with the <classname>MappedSuperclass
-      </classname> marker annotation.
-      </para>
-          <para>  
-      The equivalent XML element is <literal>mapped-superclass</literal>.
-      It expects the following attributes:
-      </para>
-          <itemizedlist>
-            <listitem>
-              <para><literal>class</literal>: The entity class.  This attribute
-          is required.
-          </para>
-            </listitem>
-            <listitem>
-              <para><literal>access</literal>: The access type to use for the
-          class.  Must either be <literal>FIELD</literal> or
-          <literal>PROPERTY</literal>.  For details on access 
-          types, see <xref linkend="jpa_overview_meta_field"/>.
-          </para>
-            </listitem>
-          </itemizedlist>
-          <note>
-            <para>
-        OpenJPA allows you to query on mapped superclasses.  A
-        query on a mapped superclass will return all matching
-        subclass instances.  OpenJPA also allows you to declare relations
-        to mapped superclass types; however, you cannot query across
-        these relations.
-        </para>
-          </note>
+            <title>
+                Mapped Superclass
+            </title>
+            <indexterm zone="jpa_overview_meta_embeddablesuper">
+                <primary>
+                    MappedSuperclass
+                </primary>
+            </indexterm>
+            <indexterm zone="jpa_overview_meta_embeddablesuper">
+                <primary>
+                    metadata
+                </primary>
+                <secondary>
+                    MappedSuperclass
+                </secondary>
+            </indexterm>
+            <indexterm zone="jpa_overview_meta_embeddablesuper">
+                <primary>
+                    annotations
+                </primary>
+                <secondary>
+                    MappedSuperclass
+                </secondary>
+            </indexterm>
+            <para>
+A <emphasis>mapped superclass</emphasis> is a non-entity class that can define
+persistent state and mapping information for entity subclasses. Mapped
+superclasses are usually abstract. Unlike true entities, you cannot query a
+mapped superclass, pass a mapped superclass instance to any <classname>
+EntityManager</classname> or <classname>Query</classname> methods, or declare a
+persistent relation with a mapped superclass target. You denote a mapped
+superclass with the <classname>MappedSuperclass</classname> marker annotation.
+            </para>
+            <para>
+The equivalent XML element is <literal>mapped-superclass</literal>. It expects
+the following attributes:
+            </para>
+            <itemizedlist>
+                <listitem>
+                    <para>
+<literal>class</literal>: The entity class. This attribute is required.
+                    </para>
+                </listitem>
+                <listitem>
+                    <para>
+<literal>access</literal>: The access type to use for the class. Must either be
+<literal>FIELD</literal> or <literal>PROPERTY</literal>. For details on access
+types, see <xref linkend="jpa_overview_meta_field"></xref>.
+                    </para>
+                </listitem>
+            </itemizedlist>
+            <note>
+                <para>
+OpenJPA allows you to query on mapped superclasses. A query on a mapped
+superclass will return all matching subclass instances. OpenJPA also allows you
+to declare relations to mapped superclass types; however, you cannot query
+across these relations.
+                </para>
+            </note>
         </section>
         <section id="jpa_overview_meta_embeddable">
-          <title>Embeddable</title>
-          <indexterm zone="jpa_overview_meta_embeddable">
-            <primary>Embeddable</primary>
-          </indexterm>
-          <indexterm zone="jpa_overview_meta_embeddable">
-            <primary>metadata</primary>
-            <secondary>Embeddable</secondary>
-          </indexterm>
-          <indexterm zone="jpa_overview_meta_embeddable">
-            <primary>annotations</primary>
-            <secondary>Embeddable</secondary>
-          </indexterm>
-          <para>
-      The <classname>Embeddable</classname> annotation designates an 
-      embeddable persistent class.  Embeddable instances are stored as
-      part of the record of their owning instance.  All embeddable 
-      classes must have this annotation.
-      </para>
-          <para>
-      A persistent class can either be an entity or an embeddable class,
-      but not both.
-      </para>
-          <para>
-      The equivalent XML element is <literal>embeddable</literal>.
-      It understands the following attributes:
-      </para>
-          <itemizedlist>
-            <listitem>
-              <para><literal>class</literal>: The entity class.  This attribute
-          is required.
-          </para>
-            </listitem>
-            <listitem>
-              <para><literal>access</literal>: The access type to use for the
-          class.  Must either be <literal>FIELD</literal> or
-          <literal>PROPERTY</literal>.  For details on access 
-          types, see <xref linkend="jpa_overview_meta_field"/>.
-          </para>
-            </listitem>
-          </itemizedlist>
-          <note>
-            <para>
-        OpenJPA allows a persistent class to be both an entity and
-        an embeddable class.  Instances of the class will act as 
-        entites when persisted explicitly or assigned to non-embedded
-        fields of entities.  Instances will act as embedded values
-        when assigned to embedded fields of entities.
-        </para>
+            <title>
+                Embeddable
+            </title>
+            <indexterm zone="jpa_overview_meta_embeddable">
+                <primary>
+                    Embeddable
+                </primary>
+            </indexterm>
+            <indexterm zone="jpa_overview_meta_embeddable">
+                <primary>
+                    metadata
+                </primary>
+                <secondary>
+                    Embeddable
+                </secondary>
+            </indexterm>
+            <indexterm zone="jpa_overview_meta_embeddable">
+                <primary>
+                    annotations
+                </primary>
+                <secondary>
+                    Embeddable
+                </secondary>
+            </indexterm>
             <para>
-        To signal that a class is both an entity and an embeddable class
-        in OpenJPA, simply add both the <literal>@Entity</literal> and the
-        <literal>@Embeddable</literal> annotations to the class.
-        </para>
-          </note>
+The <classname>Embeddable</classname> annotation designates an embeddable
+persistent class. Embeddable instances are stored as part of the record of their
+owning instance. All embeddable classes must have this annotation.
+            </para>
+            <para>
+A persistent class can either be an entity or an embeddable class, but not both.
+            </para>
+            <para>
+The equivalent XML element is <literal>embeddable</literal>. It understands the
+following attributes:
+            </para>
+            <itemizedlist>
+                <listitem>
+                    <para>
+<literal>class</literal>: The entity class. This attribute is required.
+                    </para>
+                </listitem>
+                <listitem>
+                    <para>
+<literal>access</literal>: The access type to use for the class. Must either be
+<literal>FIELD</literal> or <literal>PROPERTY</literal>. For details on access
+types, see <xref linkend="jpa_overview_meta_field"></xref>.
+                    </para>
+                </listitem>
+            </itemizedlist>
+            <note>
+                <para>
+OpenJPA allows a persistent class to be both an entity and an embeddable class.
+Instances of the class will act as entites when persisted explicitly or assigned
+to non-embedded fields of entities. Instances will act as embedded values when
+assigned to embedded fields of entities.
+                </para>
+                <para>
+To signal that a class is both an entity and an embeddable class in OpenJPA,
+simply add both the <literal>@Entity</literal> and the <literal>@Embeddable
+</literal> annotations to the class.
+                </para>
+            </note>
         </section>
         <section id="jpa_overview_meta_entity_listeners">
-          <title>EntityListeners</title>
-          <indexterm zone="jpa_overview_meta_entity_listeners">
-            <primary>EntityListeners</primary>
-          </indexterm>
-          <indexterm zone="jpa_overview_meta_entity_listeners">
-            <primary>entity-listeners</primary>
-          </indexterm>
-          <indexterm zone="jpa_overview_meta_entity_listeners">
-            <primary>metadata</primary>
-            <secondary>EntityListeners</secondary>
-          </indexterm>
-          <indexterm zone="jpa_overview_meta_entity_listeners">
-            <primary>annotations</primary>
-            <secondary>EntityListeners</secondary>
-          </indexterm>
-          <para>
-      An entity may list its lifecycle event listeners
-      in the <classname>EntityListeners</classname> annotation.
-      This value of this annotation is an array of the listener 
-      <classname>Class</classname>es for the entity.
-      The equivalent XML element is <literal>entity-listeners</literal>.
-      For more details on entity listeners, see
-      <xref linkend="jpa_overview_pc_callbacks"/>.
-      </para>
+            <title>
+                EntityListeners
+            </title>
+            <indexterm zone="jpa_overview_meta_entity_listeners">
+                <primary>
+                    EntityListeners
+                </primary>
+            </indexterm>
+            <indexterm zone="jpa_overview_meta_entity_listeners">
+                <primary>
+                    entity-listeners
+                </primary>
+            </indexterm>
+            <indexterm zone="jpa_overview_meta_entity_listeners">
+                <primary>
+                    metadata
+                </primary>
+                <secondary>
+                    EntityListeners
+                </secondary>
+            </indexterm>
+            <indexterm zone="jpa_overview_meta_entity_listeners">
+                <primary>
+                    annotations
+                </primary>
+                <secondary>
+                    EntityListeners
+                </secondary>
+            </indexterm>
+            <para>
+An entity may list its lifecycle event listeners in the <classname>
+EntityListeners</classname> annotation. This value of this annotation is an
+array of the listener <classname>Class</classname> es for the entity. The
+equivalent XML element is <literal>entity-listeners</literal>. For more details
+on entity listeners, see <xref linkend="jpa_overview_pc_callbacks"></xref>.
+            </para>
         </section>
         <section id="jpa_overview_meta_classex">
-          <title>Example</title>
-          <para>
-      Here are the class declarations for our persistent object model,
-      annotated with the appropriate persistence metadata.  Note that
-      <classname>Magazine</classname> declares an identity class, and
-      that <classname>Document</classname> and <classname>Address
-      </classname> are a mapped superclass and an embeddable class, 
-      respectively. <classname>LifetimeSubscription</classname> and
-      <classname>TrialSubscription</classname> override the default
-      entity name to supply a shorter alias for use in queries.
-      </para>
-          <example id="jpa_overview_meta_classlisting">
-            <title>Class Metadata</title>
-            <programlisting format="linespecific">
+            <title>
+                Example
+            </title>
+            <para>
+Here are the class declarations for our persistent object model, annotated with
+the appropriate persistence metadata. Note that <classname>Magazine</classname>
+declares an identity class, and that <classname>Document</classname> and
+<classname>Address</classname> are a mapped superclass and an embeddable class,
+respectively. <classname>LifetimeSubscription</classname> and <classname>
+TrialSubscription</classname> override the default entity name to supply a
+shorter alias for use in queries.
+            </para>
+            <example id="jpa_overview_meta_classlisting">
+                <title>
+                    Class Metadata
+                </title>
+<programlisting>
 package org.mag;
 
 @Entity
@@ -414,10 +493,10 @@
     ...
 }
 </programlisting>
-            <para>
-        The equivalent declarations in XML:
-        </para>
-            <programlisting format="linespecific">
+                <para>
+The equivalent declarations in XML:
+                </para>
+<programlisting>
 &lt;entity-mappings xmlns="http://java.sun.com/xml/ns/persistence/orm" 
     xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" 
     xsi:schemaLocation="http://java.sun.com/xml/ns/persistence/orm orm_1_0.xsd"
@@ -455,661 +534,814 @@
     &lt;/embeddable&gt;
 &lt;/entity-mappings&gt;
 </programlisting>
-          </example>
+            </example>
         </section>
-      </section>
-      <section id="jpa_overview_meta_field">
-        <title>Field and Property Metadata</title>
+    </section>
+    <section id="jpa_overview_meta_field">
+        <title>
+            Field and Property Metadata
+        </title>
         <para>
-    The persistence implementation must be able to retrieve and set the 
-    persistent state of your entities, mapped superclasses, and 
-    embeddable types.  JPA offers two modes of
-    persistent state access: <emphasis>field access</emphasis>, and
-    <emphasis>property access</emphasis>.  Under field access, the 
-    implementation injects state directly into your persistent fields, and 
-    retrieves changed state from your fields as well.  To declare field 
-    access on an entity with XML metadata, set the <literal>access
-    </literal> attribute of your <literal>entity</literal> XML element to 
-    <literal>FIELD</literal>.  To use field access for an entity using
-    annotation metadata, simply place your metadata and mapping annotations
-    on your field declarations:
-    </para>
-        <programlisting format="linespecific">
+The persistence implementation must be able to retrieve and set the persistent
+state of your entities, mapped superclasses, and embeddable types. JPA offers
+two modes of persistent state access: <emphasis>field access</emphasis>, and
+<emphasis>property access</emphasis>. Under field access, the implementation
+injects state directly into your persistent fields, and retrieves changed state
+from your fields as well. To declare field access on an entity with XML
+metadata, set the <literal>access</literal> attribute of your <literal>entity
+</literal> XML element to <literal>FIELD</literal>. To use field access for an
+entity using annotation metadata, simply place your metadata and mapping
+annotations on your field declarations:
+        </para>
+<programlisting>
 @ManyToOne
 private Company publisher;
 </programlisting>
-        <para><indexterm><primary>metadata</primary><secondary>property access</secondary></indexterm><indexterm><primary>persistent classes</primary><secondary>property access</secondary></indexterm><indexterm><primary>persistent properties</primary><seealso>persistent fields</seealso></indexterm>
-    Property access, on the other hand, retrieves and loads state through 
-    JavaBean "getter" and "setter" methods.  For a property 
-    <literal>p</literal> of type <literal>T</literal>, you must define the 
-    following getter method:
-    </para>
-        <programlisting format="linespecific">
+        <para>
+        <indexterm>
+            <primary>
+                metadata
+            </primary>
+            <secondary>
+                property access
+            </secondary>
+        </indexterm>
+        <indexterm>
+            <primary>
+                persistent classes
+            </primary>
+            <secondary>
+                property access
+            </secondary>
+        </indexterm>
+        <indexterm>
+            <primary>
+                persistent properties
+            </primary>
+            <seealso>
+                persistent fields
+            </seealso>
+        </indexterm>
+Property access, on the other hand, retrieves and loads state through JavaBean
+"getter" and "setter" methods. For a property <literal>p</literal> of type
+<literal>T</literal>, you must define the following getter method:
+        </para>
+<programlisting>
 T getP ();
 </programlisting>
         <para>
-    For boolean properties, this is also acceptable:
-    </para>
-        <programlisting format="linespecific">
+For boolean properties, this is also acceptable:
+        </para>
+<programlisting>
 boolean isP ();
 </programlisting>
         <para>
-    You must also define the following setter method:
-    </para>
-        <programlisting format="linespecific">
+You must also define the following setter method:
+        </para>
+<programlisting>
 void setP (T value);
 </programlisting>
         <para>
-    To use property access, set your <literal>entity</literal> element's 
-    <literal>access</literal> attribute to <literal>PROPERTY</literal>, or
-    place your metadata and mapping annotations on the getter method:
-    </para>
-        <programlisting format="linespecific">
+To use property access, set your <literal>entity</literal> element's <literal>
+access</literal> attribute to <literal>PROPERTY</literal>, or place your
+metadata and mapping annotations on the getter method:
+        </para>
+<programlisting>
 @ManyToOne
 private Company getPublisher () { ... }
 
 private void setPublisher (Company publisher) { ... }
 </programlisting>
         <warning>
-          <para>
-      When using property access, only the getter and setter method for
-      a property should ever access the underlying persistent field
-      directly.  Other methods, including internal business methods in
-      the persistent class, should go through the getter and setter 
-      methods when manipulating persistent state.
-      </para>
-          <para>
-      Also, take care when adding business logic to your 
-      getter and setter methods.  Consider that they are invoked by the 
-      persistence implementation to load and retrieve all persistent 
-      state; other side effects might not be desirable.
-      </para>
+            <para>
+When using property access, only the getter and setter method for a property
+should ever access the underlying persistent field directly. Other methods,
+including internal business methods in the persistent class, should go through
+the getter and setter methods when manipulating persistent state.
+            </para>
+            <para>
+Also, take care when adding business logic to your getter and setter methods.
+Consider that they are invoked by the persistence implementation to load and
+retrieve all persistent state; other side effects might not be desirable.
+            </para>
         </warning>
         <para>
-    Each class must use either field access or property access for all 
-    state; you cannot use both access types within the same class.  
-    Additionally, a subclass must use the same access type as its 
-    superclass.  
-    </para>
+Each class must use either field access or property access for all state; you
+cannot use both access types within the same class. Additionally, a subclass
+must use the same access type as its superclass.
+        </para>
         <para>
-    The remainder of this document uses the term
-    "persistent field" to refer to either a persistent field or a 
-    persistent property.
-    </para>
+The remainder of this document uses the term "persistent field" to refer to
+either a persistent field or a persistent property.
+        </para>
         <section id="jpa_overview_meta_transient">
-          <title>Transient</title>
-          <indexterm zone="jpa_overview_meta_transient">
-            <primary>Transient</primary>
-          </indexterm>
-          <indexterm zone="jpa_overview_meta_transient">
-            <primary>metadata</primary>
-            <secondary>Transient</secondary>
-          </indexterm>
-          <indexterm zone="jpa_overview_meta_transient">
-            <primary>annotations</primary>
-            <secondary>Transient</secondary>
-          </indexterm>
-          <para>
-      The <classname>Transient</classname> annotation specifies that a
-      field is non-persistent.  Use it to exclude fields from management
-      that would otherwise be persistent.  <classname>
-      Transient</classname> is a marker annotation only; it has no
-      properties.
-      </para>
-          <para>
-      The equivalent XML element is <literal>transient</literal>.  It
-      has a single attribute:
-      </para>
-          <itemizedlist>
-            <listitem>
-              <para><literal>name</literal>: The transient field or property 
-          name.  This attribute is required.
-          </para>
-            </listitem>
-          </itemizedlist>
+            <title>
+                Transient
+            </title>
+            <indexterm zone="jpa_overview_meta_transient">
+                <primary>
+                    Transient
+                </primary>
+            </indexterm>
+            <indexterm zone="jpa_overview_meta_transient">
+                <primary>
+                    metadata
+                </primary>
+                <secondary>
+                    Transient
+                </secondary>
+            </indexterm>
+            <indexterm zone="jpa_overview_meta_transient">
+                <primary>
+                    annotations
+                </primary>
+                <secondary>
+                    Transient
+                </secondary>
+            </indexterm>
+            <para>
+The <classname>Transient</classname> annotation specifies that a field is
+non-persistent. Use it to exclude fields from management that would otherwise be
+persistent. <classname> Transient</classname> is a marker annotation only; it
+has no properties.
+            </para>
+            <para>
+The equivalent XML element is <literal>transient</literal>. It has a single
+attribute:
+            </para>
+            <itemizedlist>
+                <listitem>
+                    <para>
+<literal>name</literal>: The transient field or property name. This attribute
+is required.
+                    </para>
+                </listitem>
+            </itemizedlist>
         </section>
         <section id="jpa_overview_meta_id">
-          <title>Id</title>
-          <indexterm zone="jpa_overview_meta_id">
-            <primary>Id</primary>
-          </indexterm>
-          <indexterm zone="jpa_overview_meta_id">
-            <primary>metadata</primary>
-            <secondary>Id</secondary>
-          </indexterm>
-          <indexterm zone="jpa_overview_meta_id">
-            <primary>annotations</primary>
-            <secondary>Id</secondary>
-          </indexterm>
-          <para>
-      Annotate your simple identity fields with <classname>Id</classname>.
-      This annotation has no properties.  We explore entity identity and 
-      identity fields in <xref linkend="jpa_overview_pc_id"/>.  
-      </para>
-          <para>
-      The equivalent XML element is <literal>id</literal>.  It has one 
-      required attribute:
-      </para>
-          <itemizedlist>
-            <listitem>
-              <para><literal>name</literal>: The name of the identity field or
-          property.
-          </para>
-            </listitem>
-          </itemizedlist>
+            <title>
+                Id
+            </title>
+            <indexterm zone="jpa_overview_meta_id">
+                <primary>
+                    Id
+                </primary>
+            </indexterm>
+            <indexterm zone="jpa_overview_meta_id">
+                <primary>
+                    metadata
+                </primary>
+                <secondary>
+                    Id
+                </secondary>
+            </indexterm>
+            <indexterm zone="jpa_overview_meta_id">
+                <primary>
+                    annotations
+                </primary>
+                <secondary>
+                    Id
+                </secondary>
+            </indexterm>
+            <para>
+Annotate your simple identity fields with <classname>Id</classname>. This
+annotation has no properties. We explore entity identity and identity fields in
+<xref linkend="jpa_overview_pc_id"></xref>.
+            </para>
+            <para>
+The equivalent XML element is <literal>id</literal>. It has one required
+attribute:
+            </para>
+            <itemizedlist>
+                <listitem>
+                    <para>
+<literal>name</literal>: The name of the identity field or property.
+                    </para>
+                </listitem>
+            </itemizedlist>
         </section>
         <section id="jpa_overview_meta_gen">
-          <title>Generated Value</title>
-          <indexterm zone="jpa_overview_meta_gen">
-            <primary>GeneratedValue</primary>
-          </indexterm>
-          <indexterm zone="jpa_overview_meta_gen">
-            <primary>metadata</primary>
-            <secondary>GeneratedValue</secondary>
-          </indexterm>
-          <indexterm zone="jpa_overview_meta_gen">
-            <primary>annotations</primary>
-            <secondary>GeneratedValue</secondary>
-          </indexterm>
-          <para>
-      The previous section showed you how to declare your identity
-      fields with the <classname>Id</classname> annotation.  It is often
-      convenient to allow the persistence implementation to assign a 
-      unique value to your identity fields automatically.  JPA 
-      includes the the <classname>GeneratedValue</classname> 
-      annotation for this purpose.  You can only apply the <classname>
-      GeneratedValue</classname> annotation to numeric fields.  It has 
-      the following properties:
-      </para>
-          <itemizedlist>
-            <listitem>
-              <para><literal>GenerationType strategy</literal>: Enum value
-          specifying how to auto-generate the field value.
-          The <classname>GenerationType</classname> enum has the 
-          following values:
-          </para>
-              <itemizedlist>
-                <listitem>
-                  <para><literal>GeneratorType.AUTO</literal>: The default.
-              Assign the field a generated value, leaving the 
-              details to the JPA vendor.
-              </para>
-                </listitem>
-                <listitem>
-                  <para><literal>GenerationType.IDENTITY</literal>: The
-              database will assign an identity value on insert.
-              </para>
-                </listitem>
-                <listitem>
-                  <para><literal>GenerationType.SEQUENCE</literal>: Use a
-              datastore sequence to generate a field value.
-              </para>
-                </listitem>
-                <listitem>
-                  <para><literal>GenerationType.TABLE</literal>: Use a
-              sequence table to generate a field value.
-              </para>
-                </listitem>
-              </itemizedlist>
-            </listitem>
-            <listitem>
-              <para><literal>String generator</literal>: The name of a 
-          generator defined in mapping metadata.  We show you how
-          to define named generators in 
-          <xref linkend="jpa_overview_mapping_sequence"/>.
-          If the <classname>GenerationType</classname> is set but 
-          this property is unset, the JPA implementation 
-          uses appropriate defaults for the selected generation type.
-          </para>
-            </listitem>
-          </itemizedlist>
-          <para>
-      The equivalent XML element is <literal>generated-value</literal>,
-      which includes the following attributes:
-      </para>
-          <itemizedlist>
-            <listitem>
-              <para><literal>strategy</literal>: One of <literal>
-          TABLE</literal>, <literal>SEQUENCE</literal>, <literal>
-          IDENTITY</literal>, or <literal>AUTO</literal>, defaulting 
-          to <literal>AUTO</literal>.
-          </para>
-            </listitem>
-            <listitem>
-              <para><literal>generator</literal>: Equivalent to the generator
-          property listed above.
-          </para>
-            </listitem>
-          </itemizedlist>
-          <note>
-            <para>
-        OpenJPA allows you to use the <classname>GeneratedValue</classname>
-        annotation on any field, not just identity fields.
-        Before using the <literal>IDENTITY</literal> generation 
-        strategy, however, read 
-        <xref linkend="ref_guide_pc_oid_pkgen_autoinc"/>
-        in the Reference Guide.  
-        </para>
+            <title>
+                Generated Value
+            </title>
+            <indexterm zone="jpa_overview_meta_gen">
+                <primary>
+                    GeneratedValue
+                </primary>
+            </indexterm>
+            <indexterm zone="jpa_overview_meta_gen">
+                <primary>
+                    metadata
+                </primary>
+                <secondary>
+                    GeneratedValue
+                </secondary>
+            </indexterm>
+            <indexterm zone="jpa_overview_meta_gen">
+                <primary>
+                    annotations
+                </primary>
+                <secondary>
+                    GeneratedValue
+                </secondary>
+            </indexterm>
             <para>
-        OpenJPA also offers two additional 
-        generator strategies for non-numeric fields, which you can 
-        access by setting <literal>strategy</literal> to 
-        <literal>AUTO</literal> (the default), and setting
-        the <literal>generator</literal> string to:
-        </para>
-            <itemizedlist>
-              <listitem>
-                <para><indexterm><primary>mapping metadata</primary><secondary>uuid-string</secondary></indexterm><indexterm><primary>uuid-string</primary></indexterm><literal>uuid-string</literal>: OpenJPA will generate a 
-            128-bit UUID unique
-            within the network, represented as a 16-character 
-            string.  For more information on UUIDs, see the IETF 
-            UUID draft specification at:
-            <ulink url="http://www1.ics.uci.edu/~ejw/authoring/uuid-guid/"> 
-            http://www1.ics.uci.edu/~ejw/authoring/uuid-guid/
-            </ulink></para>
-              </listitem>
-              <listitem>
-                <para><indexterm><primary>mapping metadata</primary><secondary>uuid-hex</secondary></indexterm><indexterm><primary>uuid-hex</primary></indexterm><literal>uuid-hex</literal>: Same as <literal>
-            uuid-string</literal>, but represents the UUID as
-            a 32-character hexadecimal string.
+The previous section showed you how to declare your identity fields with the
+<classname>Id</classname> annotation. It is often convenient to allow the
+persistence implementation to assign a unique value to your identity fields
+automatically. JPA includes the the <classname>GeneratedValue</classname>
+annotation for this purpose. You can only apply the <classname> GeneratedValue
+</classname> annotation to numeric fields. It has the following properties:
             </para>
-              </listitem>
+            <itemizedlist>
+                <listitem>
+                    <para>
+<literal>GenerationType strategy</literal>: Enum value specifying how to
+auto-generate the field value. The <classname>GenerationType</classname> enum
+has the following values:
+                    </para>
+                    <itemizedlist>
+                        <listitem>
+                            <para>
+<literal>GeneratorType.AUTO</literal>: The default. Assign the field a
+generated value, leaving the details to the JPA vendor.
+                            </para>
+                        </listitem>
+                        <listitem>
+                            <para>
+<literal>GenerationType.IDENTITY</literal>: The database will assign an
+identity value on insert.
+                            </para>
+                        </listitem>
+                        <listitem>
+                            <para>
+<literal>GenerationType.SEQUENCE</literal>: Use a datastore sequence to
+generate a field value.
+                            </para>
+                        </listitem>
+                        <listitem>
+                            <para>
+<literal>GenerationType.TABLE</literal>: Use a sequence table to generate a
+field value.
+                            </para>
+                        </listitem>
+                    </itemizedlist>
+                </listitem>
+                <listitem>
+                    <para>
+<literal>String generator</literal>: The name of a generator defined in mapping
+metadata. We show you how to define named generators in
+<xref linkend="jpa_overview_mapping_sequence"></xref>. If the <classname>
+GenerationType</classname> is set but this property is unset, the JPA
+implementation uses appropriate defaults for the selected generation type.
+                    </para>
+                </listitem>
             </itemizedlist>
             <para>
-        These string constants are defined in
-        <ulink url="../../api/openjpa/persistence/Generator.html"><classname>org.apache.openjpa.persistence.Generator</classname></ulink>.
-        </para>
-          </note>
+The equivalent XML element is <literal>generated-value</literal>, which
+includes the following attributes:
+            </para>
+            <itemizedlist>
+                <listitem>
+                    <para>
+<literal>strategy</literal>: One of <literal> TABLE</literal>, <literal>
+SEQUENCE</literal>, <literal> IDENTITY</literal>, or <literal>AUTO</literal>,
+defaulting to <literal>AUTO</literal>.
+                    </para>
+                </listitem>
+                <listitem>
+                    <para>
+<literal>generator</literal>: Equivalent to the generator property listed
+above.
+                    </para>
+                </listitem>
+            </itemizedlist>
+            <note>
+                <para>
+OpenJPA allows you to use the <classname>GeneratedValue</classname> annotation
+on any field, not just identity fields. Before using the <literal>IDENTITY
+</literal> generation strategy, however, read
+<xref linkend="ref_guide_pc_oid_pkgen_autoinc"></xref> in the Reference Guide.
+                </para>
+                <para>
+OpenJPA also offers two additional generator strategies for non-numeric fields,
+which you can access by setting <literal>strategy</literal> to <literal>AUTO
+</literal> (the default), and setting the <literal>generator</literal> string
+to:
+                </para>
+                <itemizedlist>
+                    <listitem>
+                        <para>
+                        <indexterm>
+                            <primary>
+                                mapping metadata
+                            </primary>
+                            <secondary>
+                                uuid-string
+                            </secondary>
+                        </indexterm>
+                        <indexterm>
+                            <primary>
+                                uuid-string
+                            </primary>
+                        </indexterm>
+<literal>uuid-string</literal>: OpenJPA will generate a 128-bit UUID unique
+within the network, represented as a 16-character string. For more information
+on UUIDs, see the IETF UUID draft specification at:
+<ulink url="http://www1.ics.uci.edu/~ejw/authoring/uuid-guid/">
+http://www1.ics.uci.edu/~ejw/authoring/uuid-guid/</ulink>
+                        </para>
+                    </listitem>
+                    <listitem>
+                        <para>
+                        <indexterm>
+                            <primary>
+                                mapping metadata
+                            </primary>
+                            <secondary>
+                                uuid-hex
+                            </secondary>
+                        </indexterm>
+                        <indexterm>
+                            <primary>
+                                uuid-hex
+                            </primary>
+                        </indexterm>
+<literal>uuid-hex</literal>: Same as <literal> uuid-string</literal>, but
+represents the UUID as a 32-character hexadecimal string.
+                        </para>
+                    </listitem>
+                </itemizedlist>
+                <para>
+These string constants are defined in
+<ulink url="../../api/openjpa/persistence/Generator.html"><classname>
+org.apache.openjpa.persistence.Generator</classname></ulink>.
+                </para>
+            </note>
         </section>
         <section id="jpa_overview_meta_embedid">
-          <title>Embedded Id</title>
-          <indexterm zone="jpa_overview_meta_embedid">
-            <primary>EmbeddedId</primary>
-          </indexterm>
-          <indexterm zone="jpa_overview_meta_embedid">
-            <primary>metadata</primary>
-            <secondary>EmbeddedId</secondary>
-          </indexterm>
-          <indexterm zone="jpa_overview_meta_embedid">
-            <primary>annotations</primary>
-            <secondary>EmbeddedId</secondary>
-          </indexterm>
-          <para>
-      If your entity has multiple identity values, you may declare 
-      multiple <literal>@Id</literal> fields, or you may declare a single 
-      <literal>@EmbeddedId</literal> field.  The type of a field 
-      annotated with <classname>EmbeddedId</classname> must be an
-      embeddable entity class.  The fields of this embeddable class are 
-      considered the identity values of the owning entity.  We explore 
-      entity identity and identity fields in 
-      <xref linkend="jpa_overview_pc_id"/>.  
-      </para>
-          <para>
-      The <classname>EmbeddedId</classname> annotation has no properties.
-      </para>
-          <para>
-      The equivalent XML element is <literal>embedded-id</literal>.  It 
-      has one required attribute:
-      </para>
-          <itemizedlist>
-            <listitem>
-              <para><literal>name</literal>: The name of the identity field or
-          property.
-          </para>
-            </listitem>
-          </itemizedlist>
+            <title>
+                Embedded Id
+            </title>
+            <indexterm zone="jpa_overview_meta_embedid">
+                <primary>
+                    EmbeddedId
+                </primary>
+            </indexterm>
+            <indexterm zone="jpa_overview_meta_embedid">
+                <primary>
+                    metadata
+                </primary>
+                <secondary>
+                    EmbeddedId
+                </secondary>
+            </indexterm>
+            <indexterm zone="jpa_overview_meta_embedid">
+                <primary>
+                    annotations
+                </primary>
+                <secondary>
+                    EmbeddedId
+                </secondary>
+            </indexterm>
+            <para>
+If your entity has multiple identity values, you may declare multiple <literal>
+@Id</literal> fields, or you may declare a single <literal>@EmbeddedId</literal>
+field. The type of a field annotated with <classname>EmbeddedId</classname> must
+be an embeddable entity class. The fields of this embeddable class are
+considered the identity values of the owning entity. We explore entity identity
+and identity fields in <xref linkend="jpa_overview_pc_id"></xref>.
+            </para>
+            <para>
+The <classname>EmbeddedId</classname> annotation has no properties.
+            </para>
+            <para>
+The equivalent XML element is <literal>embedded-id</literal>. It has one
+required attribute:
+            </para>
+            <itemizedlist>
+                <listitem>
+                    <para>
+<literal>name</literal>: The name of the identity field or property.
+                    </para>
+                </listitem>
+            </itemizedlist>
         </section>
         <section id="jpa_overview_meta_version">
-          <title>Version</title>
-          <indexterm zone="jpa_overview_meta_version">
-            <primary>Version</primary>
-          </indexterm>
-          <indexterm zone="jpa_overview_meta_version">
-            <primary>metadata</primary>
-            <secondary>Version</secondary>
-          </indexterm>
-          <indexterm zone="jpa_overview_meta_version">
-            <primary>annotations</primary>
-            <secondary>Version</secondary>
-          </indexterm>
-          <para>
-      Use the <classname>Version</classname> annotation to designate a
-      version field.  <xref linkend="jpa_overview_pc_version"/> 
-      explained the importance of version fields to JPA.
-      This is a marker annotation; it has no properties.
-      </para>
-          <para>
-      The equivalent XML element is <literal>version</literal>, which 
-      has a single attribute:
-      </para>
-          <itemizedlist>
-            <listitem>
-              <para><literal>name</literal>: The name of the version field or
-          property.  This attribute is required.
-          </para>
-            </listitem>
-          </itemizedlist>
+            <title>
+                Version
+            </title>
+            <indexterm zone="jpa_overview_meta_version">
+                <primary>
+                    Version
+                </primary>
+            </indexterm>
+            <indexterm zone="jpa_overview_meta_version">
+                <primary>
+                    metadata
+                </primary>
+                <secondary>
+                    Version
+                </secondary>
+            </indexterm>
+            <indexterm zone="jpa_overview_meta_version">
+                <primary>
+                    annotations
+                </primary>
+                <secondary>
+                    Version
+                </secondary>
+            </indexterm>
+            <para>
+Use the <classname>Version</classname> annotation to designate a version field.
+<xref linkend="jpa_overview_pc_version"></xref> explained the importance of
+version fields to JPA. This is a marker annotation; it has no properties.
+            </para>
+            <para>
+The equivalent XML element is <literal>version</literal>, which has a single
+attribute:
+            </para>
+            <itemizedlist>
+                <listitem>
+                    <para>
+<literal>name</literal>: The name of the version field or property. This
+attribute is required.
+                    </para>
+                </listitem>
+            </itemizedlist>
         </section>
         <section id="jpa_overview_meta_basic">
-          <title>Basic</title>
-          <indexterm zone="jpa_overview_meta_basic">
-            <primary>Basic</primary>
-          </indexterm>
-          <indexterm zone="jpa_overview_meta_basic">
-            <primary>metadata</primary>
-            <secondary>Basic</secondary>
-          </indexterm>
-          <indexterm zone="jpa_overview_meta_basic">
-            <primary>annotations</primary>
-            <secondary>Basic</secondary>
-          </indexterm>
-          <para><classname>Basic</classname> signifies a standard value persisted
-      as-is to the datastore.  You can use the <classname>Basic
-      </classname> annotation on persistent fields of the following types:
-      primitives, primitive wrappers,
-      <classname>java.lang.String</classname>,
-      <classname>byte[]</classname>, 
-      <classname>Byte[]</classname>,
-      <classname>char[]</classname>, 
-      <classname>Character[]</classname>,
-      <classname>java.math.BigDecimal</classname>,
-      <classname>java.math.BigInteger</classname>,
-      <classname>java.util.Date</classname>,
-      <classname>java.util.Calendar</classname>,
-      <classname>java.sql.Date</classname>, 
-      <classname>java.sql.Timestamp</classname>,
-      <classname>Enum</classname>s, and 
-      <classname>Serializable</classname> types.
-      </para>
-          <para><classname>Basic</classname> declares these properties:
-      </para>
-          <itemizedlist>
-            <listitem>
-              <para><literal>FetchType fetch</literal>: Whether to load the
-          field eagerly (<literal>FetchType.EAGER</literal>) or 
-          lazily (<literal>FetchType.LAZY</literal>).
-          Defaults to <literal>FetchType.EAGER</literal>.
-          </para>
-            </listitem>
-            <listitem>
-              <para><literal>boolean optional</literal>: Whether the datastore
-          allows null values.  Defaults to true.
-          </para>
-            </listitem>
-          </itemizedlist>
-          <para>
-      The equivalent XML element is <literal>basic</literal>.  It has
-      the following attributes:
-      </para>
-          <itemizedlist>
-            <listitem>
-              <para><literal>name</literal>: The name of the field or property.
-          This attribute is required.
-          </para>
-            </listitem>
-            <listitem>
-              <para><literal>fetch</literal>: One of <literal>EAGER</literal>
-          or<literal>LAZY</literal>.
-          </para>
-            </listitem>
-            <listitem>
-              <para><literal>optional</literal>: Boolean indicating whether the
-          field value may be null.
-          </para>
-            </listitem>
-          </itemizedlist>
-          <section id="jpa_overview_meta_fetch">
-            <title>Fetch Type</title>
-            <indexterm zone="jpa_overview_meta_fetch">
-              <primary>eager fetching</primary>
-              <secondary>FetchType</secondary>
-            </indexterm>
-            <indexterm zone="jpa_overview_meta_fetch">
-              <primary>FetchType</primary>
-              <seealso>eager fetching</seealso>
-            </indexterm>
-            <indexterm zone="jpa_overview_meta_fetch">
-              <primary>metadata</primary>
-              <secondary>FetchType</secondary>
-            </indexterm>
-            <para>
-        Many metadata annotations in JPA have a 
-        <literal>fetch</literal> property.  This property can take
-        on one of two values: <literal>FetchType.EAGER</literal> or
-        <literal>FetchType.LAZY</literal>.  <literal>FetchType.EAGER
-        </literal> means that the field is loaded by the JPA
-        implementation before it returns the persistent object to you.
-        Whenever you retrieve an entity from a query or from the
-        <classname>EntityManager</classname>, you are guaranteed that
-        all of its eager fields are populated with datastore data.
-        </para>
-            <para><literal>FetchType.LAZY</literal> is a hint to the JPA runtime
-        that you want to defer loading of the field until you access it.
-        This is called <emphasis>lazy loading</emphasis>.  Lazy loading
-        is completely transparent; when you attempt to read the field
-        for the first time, the JPA runtime will load the value from the
-        datastore and populate the field automatically.  Lazy loading
-        is only a hint and not a directive because some JPA
-        implementations cannot lazy-load certain field types.
-        </para>
+            <title>
+                Basic
+            </title>
+            <indexterm zone="jpa_overview_meta_basic">
+                <primary>
+                    Basic
+                </primary>
+            </indexterm>
+            <indexterm zone="jpa_overview_meta_basic">
+                <primary>
+                    metadata
+                </primary>
+                <secondary>
+                    Basic
+                </secondary>
+            </indexterm>
+            <indexterm zone="jpa_overview_meta_basic">
+                <primary>
+                    annotations
+                </primary>
+                <secondary>
+                    Basic
+                </secondary>
+            </indexterm>
             <para>
-        With a mix of eager and lazily-loaded fields, you can ensure
-        that commonly-used fields load efficiently, and that other
-        state loads transparently when accessed.  As you will see
-        in <xref linkend="jpa_overview_emfactory_perscontext"/>, 
-        you can also use eager fetching to ensure that entites have
-        all needed data loaded before they become <emphasis>detached
-        </emphasis> at the end of a persistence context. 
-        </para>
-            <note>
-              <para>
-          OpenJPA can lazy-load any field type.  OpenJPA also allows you
-          to dynamically change which fields are eagerly or lazily
-          loaded at runtime.  See <xref linkend="ref_guide_fetch"/>
-          in the Reference Guide for details.
-          </para>
-              <para>
-          The Reference Guide details OpenJPA's eager fetching
-          behavior in <xref linkend="ref_guide_perfpack_eager"/>.
-          </para>
-            </note>
-          </section>
+<classname>Basic</classname> signifies a standard value persisted as-is to the
+datastore. You can use the <classname>Basic</classname> annotation on persistent
+fields of the following types: primitives, primitive wrappers, <classname>
+java.lang.String</classname>, <classname>byte[]</classname>, <classname>Byte[]
+</classname>, <classname>char[]</classname>, <classname>Character[]</classname>
+, <classname>java.math.BigDecimal</classname>, <classname>java.math.BigInteger
+</classname>, <classname>java.util.Date</classname>, <classname>
+java.util.Calendar</classname>, <classname>java.sql.Date</classname>,
+<classname>java.sql.Timestamp</classname>, <classname>Enum</classname> s, and
+<classname>Serializable</classname> types.
+            </para>
+            <para>
+<classname>Basic</classname> declares these properties:
+            </para>
+            <itemizedlist>
+                <listitem>
+                    <para>
+<literal>FetchType fetch</literal>: Whether to load the field eagerly (
+<literal>FetchType.EAGER</literal>) or lazily ( <literal>FetchType.LAZY
+</literal> ). Defaults to <literal>FetchType.EAGER</literal>.
+                    </para>
+                </listitem>
+                <listitem>
+                    <para>
+<literal>boolean optional</literal>: Whether the datastore allows null values.
+Defaults to true.
+                    </para>
+                </listitem>
+            </itemizedlist>
+            <para>
+The equivalent XML element is <literal>basic</literal>. It has the following
+attributes:
+            </para>
+            <itemizedlist>
+                <listitem>
+                    <para>
+<literal>name</literal>: The name of the field or property. This attribute is
+required.
+                    </para>
+                </listitem>
+                <listitem>
+                    <para>
+<literal>fetch</literal>: One of <literal>EAGER</literal> or <literal>LAZY
+</literal>.
+                    </para>
+                </listitem>
+                <listitem>
+                    <para>
+<literal>optional</literal>: Boolean indicating whether the field value may be
+null.
+                    </para>
+                </listitem>
+            </itemizedlist>
+            <section id="jpa_overview_meta_fetch">
+                <title>
+                    Fetch Type
+                </title>
+                <indexterm zone="jpa_overview_meta_fetch">
+                    <primary>
+                        eager fetching
+                    </primary>
+                    <secondary>
+                        FetchType
+                    </secondary>
+                </indexterm>
+                <indexterm zone="jpa_overview_meta_fetch">
+                    <primary>
+                        FetchType
+                    </primary>
+                    <seealso>
+                        eager fetching
+                    </seealso>
+                </indexterm>
+                <indexterm zone="jpa_overview_meta_fetch">
+                    <primary>
+                        metadata
+                    </primary>
+                    <secondary>
+                        FetchType
+                    </secondary>
+                </indexterm>
+                <para>
+Many metadata annotations in JPA have a <literal>fetch</literal> property. This
+property can take on one of two values: <literal>FetchType.EAGER</literal> or
+<literal>FetchType.LAZY</literal>. <literal>FetchType.EAGER</literal> means that
+the field is loaded by the JPA implementation before it returns the persistent
+object to you. Whenever you retrieve an entity from a query or from the
+<classname>EntityManager</classname>, you are guaranteed that all of its eager
+fields are populated with datastore data.
+                </para>
+                <para>
+<literal>FetchType.LAZY</literal> is a hint to the JPA runtime that you want to
+defer loading of the field until you access it. This is called <emphasis>lazy
+loading</emphasis>. Lazy loading is completely transparent; when you attempt to
+read the field for the first time, the JPA runtime will load the value from the
+datastore and populate the field automatically. Lazy loading is only a hint and
+not a directive because some JPA implementations cannot lazy-load certain field
+types.
+                </para>
+                <para>
+With a mix of eager and lazily-loaded fields, you can ensure that commonly-used
+fields load efficiently, and that other state loads transparently when accessed.
+As you will see in <xref linkend="jpa_overview_emfactory_perscontext"></xref>,
+you can also use eager fetching to ensure that entites have all needed data
+loaded before they become <emphasis>detached</emphasis> at the end of a
+persistence context.
+                </para>
+                <note>
+                    <para>
+OpenJPA can lazy-load any field type. OpenJPA also allows you to dynamically
+change which fields are eagerly or lazily loaded at runtime. See
+<xref linkend="ref_guide_fetch"></xref> in the Reference Guide for details.
+                    </para>
+                    <para>
+The Reference Guide details OpenJPA's eager fetching behavior in
+<xref linkend="ref_guide_perfpack_eager"></xref>.
+                    </para>
+                </note>
+            </section>
         </section>
         <section id="jpa_overview_meta_embedded">
-          <title>Embedded</title>
-          <indexterm zone="jpa_overview_meta_embedded">
-            <primary>Embedded</primary>
-          </indexterm>
-          <indexterm zone="jpa_overview_meta_embedded">
-            <primary>metadata</primary>
-            <secondary>Embedded</secondary>
-          </indexterm>
-          <indexterm zone="jpa_overview_meta_embedded">
-            <primary>annotations</primary>
-            <secondary>Embedded</secondary>
-          </indexterm>
-          <para>
-      Use the <classname>Embedded</classname> marker annotation on 
-      embeddable field types.  Embedded fields are mapped as part of the 
-      datastore record of the declaring entity.  In our sample model, 
-      <classname>Author</classname> and <classname>Company</classname> 
-      each embed their <classname>Address</classname>, rather than 
-      forming a relation to an <classname>Address</classname> as a 
-      separate entity.
-      </para>
-          <para>
-      The equivalent XML element is <literal>embedded</literal>, which
-      expects a single attribute:
-      </para>
-          <itemizedlist>
-            <listitem>
-              <para><literal>name</literal>: The name of the field or property.
-          This attribute is required.
-          </para>
-            </listitem>
-          </itemizedlist>
+            <title>
+                Embedded
+            </title>
+            <indexterm zone="jpa_overview_meta_embedded">
+                <primary>
+                    Embedded
+                </primary>
+            </indexterm>
+            <indexterm zone="jpa_overview_meta_embedded">
+                <primary>
+                    metadata
+                </primary>
+                <secondary>
+                    Embedded
+                </secondary>
+            </indexterm>
+            <indexterm zone="jpa_overview_meta_embedded">
+                <primary>
+                    annotations
+                </primary>
+                <secondary>
+                    Embedded
+                </secondary>
+            </indexterm>
+            <para>
+Use the <classname>Embedded</classname> marker annotation on embeddable field
+types. Embedded fields are mapped as part of the datastore record of the
+declaring entity. In our sample model, <classname>Author</classname> and
+<classname>Company</classname> each embed their <classname>Address</classname>,
+rather than forming a relation to an <classname>Address</classname> as a
+separate entity.
+            </para>
+            <para>
+The equivalent XML element is <literal>embedded</literal>, which expects a
+single attribute:
+            </para>
+            <itemizedlist>
+                <listitem>
+                    <para>
+<literal>name</literal>: The name of the field or property. This attribute is
+required.
+                    </para>
+                </listitem>
+            </itemizedlist>
         </section>
         <section id="jpa_overview_meta_manytoone">
-          <title>Many To One</title>
-          <indexterm zone="jpa_overview_meta_manytoone">
-            <primary>ManyToOne</primary>
-          </indexterm>
-          <indexterm zone="jpa_overview_meta_manytoone">
-            <primary>metadata</primary>
-            <secondary>ManyToOne</secondary>
-          </indexterm>
-          <indexterm zone="jpa_overview_meta_manytoone">
-            <primary>annotations</primary>
-            <secondary>ManyToOne</secondary>
-          </indexterm>
-          <para>
-      When an entity <literal>A</literal> references a single entity
-      <literal>B</literal>, and other <literal>A</literal>s might also
-      reference the same <literal>B</literal>, we say there is a 
-      <emphasis>many to one</emphasis> relation from 
-      <literal>A</literal> to <literal>B</literal>.
-      In our sample model, for example, each magazine has a reference to 
-      its publisher.  Multiple magazines might have the same publisher.
-      We say, then, that the <literal>Magazine.publisher</literal> field
-      is a many to one relation from magazines to publishers.
-      </para>
-          <para>
-      JPA indicates many to one relations between 
-      entities with the <classname>ManyToOne</classname> annotation.
-      This annotation has the following properties:
-      </para>
-          <itemizedlist>
-            <listitem>
-              <para><literal>Class targetEntity</literal>: The class of the
-          related entity type.
-          </para>
-            </listitem>
-            <listitem>
-              <para><literal>CascadeType[] cascade</literal>: Array of enum
-          values defining cascade behavior for this field.  We
-          explore cascades below.  Defaults to an empty array.
-          </para>
-            </listitem>
-            <listitem>
-              <para><literal>FetchType fetch</literal>: Whether to load the
-          field eagerly (<literal>FetchType.EAGER</literal>) or 
-          lazily (<literal>FetchType.LAZY</literal>).
-          Defaults to <literal>FetchType.EAGER</literal>.
-          See <xref linkend="jpa_overview_meta_fetch"/> above
-          for details on fetch types.
-          </para>
-            </listitem>
-            <listitem>
-              <para><literal>boolean optional</literal>:  Whether the related
-          object must exist.  If <literal>false</literal>, this
-          field cannot be null.  Defaults to <literal>true</literal>.
-          </para>
-            </listitem>
-          </itemizedlist>
-          <para>
-      The equivalent XML element is <literal>many-to-one</literal>.  It
-      accepts the following attributes:
-      </para>
-          <itemizedlist>
-            <listitem>
-              <para><literal>name</literal>: The name of the field or property.
-          This attribute is required.
-          </para>
-            </listitem>
-            <listitem>
-              <para><literal>target-entity</literal>: The class of the related
-          type.
-          </para>
-            </listitem>
-            <listitem>
-              <para><literal>fetch</literal>: One of <literal>EAGER</literal>
-          or<literal>LAZY</literal>.
-          </para>
-            </listitem>
-            <listitem>
-              <para><literal>optional</literal>: Boolean indicating whether the
-          field value may be null.
-          </para>
-            </listitem>
-          </itemizedlist>
-          <section id="jpa_overview_meta_cascade">
-            <title>Cascade Type</title>
-            <indexterm zone="jpa_overview_meta_cascade">
-              <primary>CascadeType</primary>
-            </indexterm>
-            <indexterm zone="jpa_overview_meta_cascade">
-              <primary>metadata</primary>
-              <secondary>CascadeType</secondary>
-            </indexterm>
-            <para>
-        We introduce the JPA <classname>EntityManager
-        </classname> in <xref linkend="jpa_overview_em"/>.
-        The <classname>EntityManager</classname> has APIs to persist
-        new entities, remove (delete) existing entities,
-        refresh entity state from the datastore, and merge <emphasis>
-        detached</emphasis> entity state back into the persistence
-        context.  We explore all of these APIs in detail later in the 
-        overview.
-        </para>
+            <title>
+                Many To One
+            </title>
+            <indexterm zone="jpa_overview_meta_manytoone">
+                <primary>
+                    ManyToOne
+                </primary>
+            </indexterm>
+            <indexterm zone="jpa_overview_meta_manytoone">
+                <primary>
+                    metadata
+                </primary>
+                <secondary>
+                    ManyToOne
+                </secondary>
+            </indexterm>
+            <indexterm zone="jpa_overview_meta_manytoone">
+                <primary>
+                    annotations
+                </primary>
+                <secondary>
+                    ManyToOne
+                </secondary>
+            </indexterm>
             <para>
-        When the <classname>EntityManager</classname> is performing the
-        above operations, you can instruct it to automatically cascade 
-        the operation to the entities held in a persistent field with
-        the <literal>cascade</literal> property of your metadata 
-        annotation.  This process is recursive.  The <literal>cascade
-        </literal> property accepts an array of <classname>CascadeType
-        </classname> enum values. 
-        </para>
+When an entity <literal>A</literal> references a single entity <literal>B
+</literal>, and other <literal>A</literal>s might also reference the same
+<literal>B</literal>, we say there is a <emphasis>many to one</emphasis>
+relation from <literal>A</literal> to <literal>B</literal>. In our sample
+model, for example, each magazine has a reference to its publisher. Multiple
+magazines might have the same publisher. We say, then, that the <literal>
+Magazine.publisher</literal> field is a many to one relation from magazines to
+publishers.
+            </para>
+            <para>
+JPA indicates many to one relations between entities with the <classname>
+ManyToOne</classname> annotation. This annotation has the following properties:
+            </para>
             <itemizedlist>
-              <listitem>
-                <para><literal>CascadeType.PERSIST</literal>: When persisting
-            an entity, also persist the entities held in this field.
-            We suggest liberal application of this cascade rule, 
-            because if the <classname>EntityManager</classname>
-            finds a field that references a new entity
-            during flush, and the field does not use
-            <literal>CascadeType.PERSIST</literal>, it is an error.
-            </para>
-              </listitem>
-              <listitem>
-                <para><literal>CascadeType.REMOVE</literal>: When deleting
-            an entity, also delete the entities held in this field.
-            </para>
-              </listitem>
-              <listitem>
-                <para><literal>CascadeType.REFRESH</literal>: When refreshing
-            an entity, also refresh the entities held in this field.
-            </para>
-              </listitem>
-              <listitem>
-                <para><literal>CascadeType.MERGE</literal>: When merging
-            entity state, also merge the entities held in this 
-            field.
-            </para>
-              </listitem>
-            </itemizedlist>
-            <para><classname>CascadeType</classname> defines one additional value,
-        <literal>CascadeType.ALL</literal>, that acts as a shortcut for
-        all of the values above.  The following annotations are 
-        equivalent:
-        </para>
-            <programlisting format="linespecific">
+                <listitem>
+                    <para>
+<literal>Class targetEntity</literal>: The class of the related entity type.
+                    </para>
+                </listitem>
+                <listitem>
+                    <para>
+<literal>CascadeType[] cascade</literal>: Array of enum values defining cascade
+behavior for this field. We explore cascades below. Defaults to an empty array.
+                    </para>
+                </listitem>
+                <listitem>
+                    <para>
+<literal>FetchType fetch</literal>: Whether to load the field eagerly (
+<literal>FetchType.EAGER</literal>) or lazily ( <literal>FetchType.LAZY
+</literal> ). Defaults to <literal>FetchType.EAGER</literal>. See
+<xref linkend="jpa_overview_meta_fetch"></xref> above for details on fetch
+types.
+                    </para>
+                </listitem>
+                <listitem>
+                    <para>
+<literal>boolean optional</literal>: Whether the related object must exist. If
+<literal>false</literal>, this field cannot be null. Defaults to <literal>true
+</literal>.
+                    </para>
+                </listitem>
+            </itemizedlist>
+            <para>
+The equivalent XML element is <literal>many-to-one</literal>. It accepts the
+following attributes:
+            </para>
+            <itemizedlist>
+                <listitem>
+                    <para>
+<literal>name</literal>: The name of the field or property. This attribute is
+required.
+                    </para>
+                </listitem>
+                <listitem>
+                    <para>
+<literal>target-entity</literal>: The class of the related type.
+                    </para>
+                </listitem>
+                <listitem>
+                    <para>
+<literal>fetch</literal>: One of <literal>EAGER</literal> or <literal>LAZY
+</literal>.
+                    </para>
+                </listitem>
+                <listitem>
+                    <para>
+<literal>optional</literal>: Boolean indicating whether the field value may be
+null.
+                    </para>
+                </listitem>
+            </itemizedlist>
+            <section id="jpa_overview_meta_cascade">
+                <title>
+                    Cascade Type
+                </title>
+                <indexterm zone="jpa_overview_meta_cascade">
+                    <primary>
+                        CascadeType
+                    </primary>
+                </indexterm>
+                <indexterm zone="jpa_overview_meta_cascade">
+                    <primary>
+                        metadata
+                    </primary>
+                    <secondary>
+                        CascadeType
+                    </secondary>
+                </indexterm>
+                <para>
+We introduce the JPA <classname>EntityManager</classname> in
+<xref linkend="jpa_overview_em"></xref>. The <classname>EntityManager
+</classname> has APIs to persist new entities, remove (delete) existing
+entities, refresh entity state from the datastore, and merge <emphasis> detached
+</emphasis> entity state back into the persistence context. We explore all of
+these APIs in detail later in the overview.
+                </para>
+                <para>
+When the <classname>EntityManager</classname> is performing the above
+operations, you can instruct it to automatically cascade the operation to the
+entities held in a persistent field with the <literal>cascade</literal> property
+of your metadata annotation. This process is recursive. The <literal>cascade
+</literal> property accepts an array of <classname>CascadeType</classname> enum
+values.
+                </para>
+                <itemizedlist>
+                    <listitem>
+                        <para>
+<literal>CascadeType.PERSIST</literal>: When persisting an entity, also persist
+the entities held in this field. We suggest liberal application of this cascade
+rule, because if the <classname>EntityManager</classname> finds a field that
+references a new entity during flush, and the field does not use <literal>
+CascadeType.PERSIST</literal>, it is an error.
+                        </para>
+                    </listitem>
+                    <listitem>
+                        <para>
+<literal>CascadeType.REMOVE</literal>: When deleting an entity, also delete the
+entities held in this field.
+                        </para>
+                    </listitem>
+                    <listitem>
+                        <para>
+<literal>CascadeType.REFRESH</literal>: When refreshing an entity, also refresh
+the entities held in this field.
+                        </para>
+                    </listitem>
+                    <listitem>
+                        <para>
+<literal>CascadeType.MERGE</literal>: When merging entity state, also merge the
+entities held in this field.
+                        </para>
+                    </listitem>
+                </itemizedlist>
+                <para>
+<classname>CascadeType</classname> defines one additional value, <literal>
+CascadeType.ALL</literal>, that acts as a shortcut for all of the values above.
+The following annotations are equivalent:
+                </para>
+<programlisting>
 @ManyToOne(cascade={CascadeType.PERSIST,CascadeType.REMOVE,
     CascadeType.REFRESH,CascadeType.MERGE})
 private Company publisher;
 </programlisting>
-            <programlisting format="linespecific">
+<programlisting>
 @ManyToOne(cascade=CascadeType.ALL)
 private Company publisher;
 </programlisting>
-            <para>
-        In XML, these enumeration constants are available as child 
-        elements of the <literal>cascade</literal> element.  The
-        <literal>cascade</literal> element is itself a child of  
-        <literal>many-to-one</literal>.  The following examples are 
-        equivalent:
-        </para>
-            <programlisting format="linespecific">
+                <para>
+In XML, these enumeration constants are available as child elements of the
+<literal>cascade</literal> element. The <literal>cascade</literal> element is
+itself a child of <literal>many-to-one</literal>. The following examples are
+equivalent:
+                </para>
+<programlisting>
 &lt;many-to-one name="publisher"&gt;
     &lt;cascade&gt;
         &lt;cascade-persist/&gt;
@@ -1119,564 +1351,624 @@
     &lt;/cascade&gt;
 &lt;/many-to-one&gt;
 </programlisting>
-            <programlisting format="linespecific">
+<programlisting>
 &lt;many-to-one name="publisher"&gt;
     &lt;cascade&gt;
         &lt;cascade-all/&gt;
     &lt;/cascade&gt;
 &lt;/many-to-one&gt;
 </programlisting>
-          </section>
+            </section>
         </section>

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