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From awh...@apache.org
Subject svn commit: r434517 [17/23] - in /incubator/openjpa/trunk: openjpa-kernel/src/main/java/org/apache/openjpa/meta/ openjpa-lib/src/main/java/org/apache/openjpa/lib/meta/ openjpa-project/src/doc/manual/
Date Thu, 24 Aug 2006 20:41:14 GMT
Modified: incubator/openjpa/trunk/openjpa-project/src/doc/manual/ref_guide_mapping.xml
URL: http://svn.apache.org/viewvc/incubator/openjpa/trunk/openjpa-project/src/doc/manual/ref_guide_mapping.xml?rev=434517&r1=434516&r2=434517&view=diff
==============================================================================
--- incubator/openjpa/trunk/openjpa-project/src/doc/manual/ref_guide_mapping.xml (original)
+++ incubator/openjpa/trunk/openjpa-project/src/doc/manual/ref_guide_mapping.xml Thu Aug 24 13:41:12 2006
@@ -1,799 +1,835 @@
-
-    <chapter id="ref_guide_mapping">
-      <title>Mapping</title>
-      <indexterm zone="ref_guide_mapping">
-        <primary>mapping metadata</primary>
-      </indexterm>
-      <para>
-  The JPA Overview's <xref linkend="jpa_overview_mapping"/> 
-  explains object-relational mapping under JPA.  This chapter reviews the 
-  mapping utilities OpenJPA provides and examines OpenJPA features that go beyond 
-  the JPA specification.
-  </para>
-      <section id="ref_guide_mapping_mappingtool">
-        <title>Forward Mapping</title>
+<chapter id="ref_guide_mapping">
+    <title>
+        Mapping
+    </title>
+    <indexterm zone="ref_guide_mapping">
+        <primary>
+            mapping metadata
+        </primary>
+    </indexterm>
+    <para>
+The JPA Overview's <xref linkend="jpa_overview_mapping"></xref> explains
+object-relational mapping under JPA. This chapter reviews the mapping utilities
+OpenJPA provides and examines OpenJPA features that go beyond the JPA
+specification.
+    </para>
+    <section id="ref_guide_mapping_mappingtool">
+        <title>
+            Forward Mapping
+        </title>
         <indexterm zone="ref_guide_mapping_mappingtool">
-          <primary>forward mapping</primary>
+            <primary>
+                forward mapping
+            </primary>
         </indexterm>
         <indexterm zone="ref_guide_mapping_mappingtool">
-          <primary>mapping tool</primary>
-          <seealso>forward mapping</seealso>
+            <primary>
+                mapping tool
+            </primary>
+            <seealso>
+                forward mapping
+            </seealso>
         </indexterm>
         <indexterm>
-          <primary>mapping metadata</primary>
-          <secondary>forward mapping</secondary>
-          <see>forward mapping</see>
-        </indexterm>
-        <para><emphasis>Forward mapping</emphasis> is the process of creating 
-    mappings and their corresponding database schema from your object 
-    model.  OpenJPA supports forward mapping through the <emphasis>mapping 
-    tool</emphasis>.  The next section presents several common mapping tool
-    use cases.  You can invoke the tool through the <literal>mappingtool
-    </literal> shell/batch script included in the OpenJPA distribution, 
-    or through its Java class,
-    <ulink url="../apidocs/org/apache/openjpa/jdbc/meta/MappingTool"><classname>
-    org.apache.openjpa.jdbc.meta.MappingTool</classname></ulink>.  
-    </para>
+            <primary>
+                mapping metadata
+            </primary>
+            <secondary>
+                forward mapping
+            </secondary>
+            <see>
+                forward mapping
+            </see>
+        </indexterm>
+        <para>
+<emphasis>Forward mapping</emphasis> is the process of creating mappings and
+their corresponding database schema from your object model. OpenJPA supports
+forward mapping through the <emphasis>mapping tool</emphasis>. The next section
+presents several common mapping tool use cases. You can invoke the tool through
+the <literal>mappingtool</literal> shell/batch script included in the OpenJPA
+distribution, or through its Java class,
+<ulink url="../apidocs/org/apache/openjpa/jdbc/meta/MappingTool"><classname>
+org.apache.openjpa.jdbc.meta.MappingTool</classname></ulink>.
+        </para>
         <note>
-          <para><xref linkend="ref_guide_integration_mappingtool"/> 
-      describes the mapping tool Ant task.
-      </para>
+            <para>
+<xref linkend="ref_guide_integration_mappingtool"></xref> describes the mapping
+tool Ant task.
+            </para>
         </note>
         <example id="ref_guide_mapping_mappingtool_typical">
-          <title>Using the Mapping Tool</title>
-          <programlisting format="linespecific">
+            <title>
+                Using the Mapping Tool
+            </title>
+<programlisting>
 mappingtool Magazine.java
 </programlisting>
         </example>
         <para>
-    In addition to the universal flags of the 
-    <link linkend="ref_guide_conf_devtools">configuration framework</link>, 
-    the mapping tool accepts the following command line arguments:
-    </para>
-        <itemizedlist>
-          <listitem>
-            <para><literal>-schemaAction/-sa &lt;add | refresh | drop | build 
-        | retain | none&gt;</literal>: The action to take on the 
-        schema.  These options correspond to the same-named actions on 
-        the schema tool described in 
-        <xref linkend="ref_guide_schema_schematool"/>.
-        Unless you are running the mapping tool on all of your 
-        persistent types at once or dropping a mapping, we strongly 
-        recommend you use the default <literal>add</literal> action or 
-        the <literal>build</literal> action.  Otherwise you may end up 
-        inadvertently dropping schema components that are used by 
-        classes you are not currently running the tool over.
-        </para>
-          </listitem>
-          <listitem>
-            <para><literal>-schemaFile/-sf &lt;stdout | output file&gt;</literal>:
-        Use this option to write the planned schema to an XML 
-        document rather than modify the database.  The document can
-        then be manipulated and committed to the database with the
-        <link linkend="ref_guide_schema_schematool">
-        schema tool</link>.
-        </para>
-          </listitem>
-          <listitem>
-            <para><literal>-sqlFile/-sql &lt;stdout | output file&gt;</literal>:
-        Use this option to write the planned schema modifications to
-        a SQL script rather than modify the database.  Combine this
-        with a <literal>schemaAction</literal> of 
-        <literal>build</literal> to generate a script that recreates
-        the schema for the current mappings, even if the schema already
-        exists.
-        </para>
-          </listitem>
-          <listitem>
-            <para><literal>-dropTables/-dt &lt;true/t | false/f&gt;</literal>: 
-        Corresponds to the same-named option on the schema tool.
-        </para>
-          </listitem>
-          <listitem>
-            <para><literal>-dropSequences/-dsq &lt;true/t | false/f&gt;</literal>:
-        Corresponds to the same-named option on the schema tool.
-        </para>
-          </listitem>
-          <listitem>
-            <para><literal>-openjpaTables/-kt &lt;true/t | false/f&gt;</literal>: 
-        Corresponds to the same-named option on the schema tool.
-        </para>
-          </listitem>
-          <listitem>
-            <para><literal>-ignoreErrors/-i &lt;true/t | false/f&gt;</literal>: 
-        Corresponds to the same-named option on the schema tool.
-        </para>
-          </listitem>
-          <listitem>
-            <para><literal>-schemas/-s &lt;schema and table names&gt;</literal>: 
-        Corresponds to the same-named option on the schema tool.
-        This option is ignored if <literal>readSchema</literal> is not
-        set to <literal>true</literal>.
-        </para>
-          </listitem>
-          <listitem>
-            <para><literal>-readSchema/-rs &lt;true/t | false/f&gt;</literal>: 
-        Set this option to <literal>true</literal> to read the entire
-        existing schema when the tool runs.  Reading the existing schema
-        ensures that OpenJPA does not generate any mappings that use
-        table, index, primary key, or foreign key names that conflict
-        with existing names.  Depending on the JDBC driver, though,
-        it can be a slow process for large schemas.
-        </para>
-          </listitem>
-          <listitem>
-            <para><literal>-primaryKeys/-pk &lt;true/t | false/f&gt;</literal>:
-        Whether to read and manipulate primary key information of 
-        existing tables.  Defaults to false.
-        </para>
-          </listitem>
-          <listitem>
-            <para><literal>-foreignKeys/-fk &lt;true/t | false/f&gt;</literal>:
-        Whether to read and manipulate foreign key information of 
-        existing tables.  Defaults to false.  This means that to add
-        any new foreign keys to a class that has already been mapped, 
-        you must explicitly set this flag to true.
-        </para>
-          </listitem>
-          <listitem>
-            <para><literal>-indexes/-ix &lt;true/t | false/f&gt;</literal>:
-        Whether to read and manipulate index information of 
-        existing tables.  Defaults to false.  This means that to add
-        any new indexes to a class that has already been mapped once, 
-        you must explicitly set this flag to true.
-        </para>
-          </listitem>
-          <listitem>
-            <para><literal>-sequences/-sq &lt;true/t | false/f&gt;</literal>:
-        Whether to manipulate sequences.  Defaults to true.
-        </para>
-          </listitem>
-          <listitem>
-            <para><literal>-meta/-m &lt;true/t | false/f&gt;</literal>: Whether 
-        the given action applies to metadata rather than or in addition
-        to mappings.
+In addition to the universal flags of the
+<link linkend="ref_guide_conf_devtools">configuration framework</link>, the
+mapping tool accepts the following command line arguments:
         </para>
-          </listitem>
+        <itemizedlist>
+            <listitem>
+                <para>
+<literal>-schemaAction/-sa &lt;add | refresh | drop | build | retain | none&gt;
+</literal>: The action to take on the schema. These options correspond to the
+same-named actions on the schema tool described in
+<xref linkend="ref_guide_schema_schematool"></xref>. Unless you are running the
+mapping tool on all of your persistent types at once or dropping a mapping, we
+strongly recommend you use the default <literal>add</literal> action or the
+<literal>build</literal> action. Otherwise you may end up inadvertently dropping
+schema components that are used by classes you are not currently running the
+tool over.
+                </para>
+            </listitem>
+            <listitem>
+                <para>
+<literal>-schemaFile/-sf &lt;stdout | output file&gt;</literal>: Use this
+option to write the planned schema to an XML document rather than modify the
+database. The document can then be manipulated and committed to the database
+with the <link linkend="ref_guide_schema_schematool"> schema tool</link>.
+                </para>
+            </listitem>
+            <listitem>
+                <para>
+<literal>-sqlFile/-sql &lt;stdout | output file&gt;</literal>: Use this option
+to write the planned schema modifications to a SQL script rather than modify the
+database. Combine this with a <literal>schemaAction</literal> of <literal>build
+</literal> to generate a script that recreates the schema for the current
+mappings, even if the schema already exists.
+                </para>
+            </listitem>
+            <listitem>
+                <para>
+<literal>-dropTables/-dt &lt;true/t | false/f&gt;</literal>: Corresponds to the
+same-named option on the schema tool.
+                </para>
+            </listitem>
+            <listitem>
+                <para>
+<literal>-dropSequences/-dsq &lt;true/t | false/f&gt;</literal>: Corresponds to
+the same-named option on the schema tool.
+                </para>
+            </listitem>
+            <listitem>
+                <para>
+<literal>-openjpaTables/-kt &lt;true/t | false/f&gt;</literal>: Corresponds to
+the same-named option on the schema tool.
+                </para>
+            </listitem>
+            <listitem>
+                <para>
+<literal>-ignoreErrors/-i &lt;true/t | false/f&gt;</literal>: Corresponds to
+the same-named option on the schema tool.
+                </para>
+            </listitem>
+            <listitem>
+                <para>
+<literal>-schemas/-s &lt;schema and table names&gt;</literal>: Corresponds to
+the same-named option on the schema tool. This option is ignored if <literal>
+readSchema</literal> is not set to <literal>true</literal>.
+                </para>
+            </listitem>
+            <listitem>
+                <para>
+<literal>-readSchema/-rs &lt;true/t | false/f&gt;</literal>: Set this option to
+<literal>true</literal> to read the entire existing schema when the tool runs.
+Reading the existing schema ensures that OpenJPA does not generate any mappings
+that use table, index, primary key, or foreign key names that conflict with
+existing names. Depending on the JDBC driver, though, it can be a slow process
+for large schemas.
+                </para>
+            </listitem>
+            <listitem>
+                <para>
+<literal>-primaryKeys/-pk &lt;true/t | false/f&gt;</literal>: Whether to read
+and manipulate primary key information of existing tables. Defaults to false.
+                </para>
+            </listitem>
+            <listitem>
+                <para>
+<literal>-foreignKeys/-fk &lt;true/t | false/f&gt;</literal>: Whether to read
+and manipulate foreign key information of existing tables. Defaults to false.
+This means that to add any new foreign keys to a class that has already been
+mapped, you must explicitly set this flag to true.
+                </para>
+            </listitem>
+            <listitem>
+                <para>
+<literal>-indexes/-ix &lt;true/t | false/f&gt;</literal>: Whether to read and
+manipulate index information of existing tables. Defaults to false. This means
+that to add any new indexes to a class that has already been mapped once, you
+must explicitly set this flag to true.
+                </para>
+            </listitem>
+            <listitem>
+                <para>
+<literal>-sequences/-sq &lt;true/t | false/f&gt;</literal>: Whether to
+manipulate sequences. Defaults to true.
+                </para>
+            </listitem>
+            <listitem>
+                <para>
+<literal>-meta/-m &lt;true/t | false/f&gt;</literal>: Whether the given action
+applies to metadata rather than or in addition to mappings.
+                </para>
+            </listitem>
         </itemizedlist>
         <para>
-    The mapping tool also uses an <literal>-action/-a</literal> argument 
-    to specify the action to take on each class.  The available actions are:
-    </para>
-        <itemizedlist>
-          <listitem>
-            <para><literal>buildSchema</literal>: This is the default action when
-        using JPA mapping defaults (see 
-        <xref linkend="ref_guide_mapping_defaults"/>).  It makes the 
-        database schema match your existing mappings. If your provided 
-        mappings conflict with a class definition, OpenJPA will fail with 
-        an informative exception.
-        </para>
-          </listitem>
-          <listitem>
-            <para><literal>validate</literal>: Ensure that the mappings for
-        the given classes are valid and that they match the schema.
-        No mappings or tables will be changed.  An exception is
-        thrown if any mappings are invalid.
+The mapping tool also uses an <literal>-action/-a</literal> argument to specify
+the action to take on each class. The available actions are:
         </para>
-          </listitem>
+        <itemizedlist>
+            <listitem>
+                <para>
+<literal>buildSchema</literal>: This is the default action when using JPA
+mapping defaults (see <xref linkend="ref_guide_mapping_defaults"></xref> ). It
+makes the database schema match your existing mappings. If your provided
+mappings conflict with a class definition, OpenJPA will fail with an informative
+exception.
+                </para>
+            </listitem>
+            <listitem>
+                <para>
+<literal>validate</literal>: Ensure that the mappings for the given classes are
+valid and that they match the schema. No mappings or tables will be changed. An
+exception is thrown if any mappings are invalid.
+                </para>
+            </listitem>
         </itemizedlist>
         <para>
-    Each additional argument to the tool should be one of:
-    </para>
-        <itemizedlist>
-          <listitem>
-            <para>The full name of a persistent class.</para>
-          </listitem>
-          <listitem>
-            <para>The .java file for a persistent class.</para>
-          </listitem>
-          <listitem>
-            <para>
-        The <filename>.class</filename> file of a persistent class.
+Each additional argument to the tool should be one of:
         </para>
-          </listitem>
+        <itemizedlist>
+            <listitem>
+                <para>
+The full name of a persistent class.
+                </para>
+            </listitem>
+            <listitem>
+                <para>
+The .java file for a persistent class.
+                </para>
+            </listitem>
+            <listitem>
+                <para>
+The <filename>.class</filename> file of a persistent class.
+                </para>
+            </listitem>
         </itemizedlist>
         <para>
-    If you do not supply any arguments to the mapping tool, it will run on
-    the classes in your persistent classes list (see 
-    <xref linkend="ref_guide_pc_pcclasses"/>).
-    </para>
+If you do not supply any arguments to the mapping tool, it will run on the
+classes in your persistent classes list (see
+<xref linkend="ref_guide_pc_pcclasses"></xref> ).
+        </para>
         <para>
-    The mappings generated by the mapping tool are stored by the system
-    <emphasis>mapping factory</emphasis>.  
-    <xref linkend="ref_guide_mapping_factory"/> discusses your mapping
-    factory options.
-    </para>
+The mappings generated by the mapping tool are stored by the system <emphasis>
+mapping factory</emphasis>. <xref linkend="ref_guide_mapping_factory"></xref>
+discusses your mapping factory options.
+        </para>
         <section id="ref_guide_mapping_mappingtool_examples">
-          <title>Using the Mapping Tool</title>
-          <indexterm zone="ref_guide_mapping_mappingtool_examples">
-            <primary>mapping tool</primary>
-            <secondary>use cases</secondary>
-          </indexterm>
-          <para>
-      The JPA specification defines a comprehensive set of
-      defaults for missing mapping information.  Thus, forward mapping
-      in JPA is virtually automatic.  After using the mapping 
-      annotations covered in <xref linkend="jpa_overview_mapping"/> of
-      the JPA Overview to override any unsatisfactory 
-      defaults, run the mapping tool's <literal>buildSchema</literal> 
-      action on your persistent classes.  This is the default action when
-      you use JPA mapping defaults 
-      (see <xref linkend="ref_guide_mapping_defaults"/>).
-      </para>
-          <para>
-      The <literal>buildSchema</literal> action manipulates the database
-      schema to match your mappings.  It fails if any of your mappings
-      don't match your object model.
-      </para>
-          <example id="ref_guide_mapping_mappingtool_buildschema">
-            <title>Creating the Relational Schema from Mappings</title>
-            <programlisting format="linespecific">
+            <title>
+                Using the Mapping Tool
+            </title>
+            <indexterm zone="ref_guide_mapping_mappingtool_examples">
+                <primary>
+                    mapping tool
+                </primary>
+                <secondary>
+                    use cases
+                </secondary>
+            </indexterm>
+            <para>
+The JPA specification defines a comprehensive set of defaults for missing
+mapping information. Thus, forward mapping in JPA is virtually automatic. After
+using the mapping annotations covered in <xref linkend="jpa_overview_mapping">
+</xref> of the JPA Overview to override any unsatisfactory defaults, run the
+mapping tool's <literal>buildSchema</literal> action on your persistent classes.
+This is the default action when you use JPA mapping defaults (see
+<xref linkend="ref_guide_mapping_defaults"></xref> ).
+            </para>
+            <para>
+The <literal>buildSchema</literal> action manipulates the database schema to
+match your mappings. It fails if any of your mappings don't match your object
+model.
+            </para>
+            <example id="ref_guide_mapping_mappingtool_buildschema">
+                <title>
+                    Creating the Relational Schema from Mappings
+                </title>
+<programlisting>
 mappingtool Magazine.java
 </programlisting>
-          </example>
-          <para>
-      To drop the schema for a persistent class, set the mapping tool's
-      <literal>schemaAction</literal> to <literal>drop</literal>. 
-      </para>
-          <example id="ref_guide_mapping_mappingtool_dropschema">
-            <title>Dropping Mappings and Association Schema</title>
-            <programlisting format="linespecific">
+            </example>
+            <para>
+To drop the schema for a persistent class, set the mapping tool's <literal>
+schemaAction</literal> to <literal>drop</literal>.
+            </para>
+            <example id="ref_guide_mapping_mappingtool_dropschema">
+                <title>
+                    Dropping Mappings and Association Schema
+                </title>
+<programlisting>
 mappingtool -sa drop Magazine.java
 </programlisting>
-          </example>
+            </example>
         </section>
         <section id="ref_guide_ddl_examples">
-          <title>Generating DDL SQL</title>
-          <indexterm zone="ref_guide_ddl_examples">
-            <primary>mapping tool</primary>
-            <secondary>DDL generation</secondary>
-          </indexterm>
-          <indexterm zone="ref_guide_ddl_examples">
-            <primary>DDL</primary>
-            <secondary>with mapping tool</secondary>
-          </indexterm>
-          <para>
-      The examples below show how to use the mapping tool to generate 
-      DDL SQL scripts, rather than modifying the database directly.
-      </para>
-          <example id="ref_guid_mapping_ddl_full_ddl">
-            <title>Create DDL for Current Mappings</title>
-            <para>
-        This example uses your existing mappings to determine the 
-        needed schema, then writes the SQL to create that schema to
-        <filename>create.sql</filename>. 
-        </para>
-            <programlisting format="linespecific">
+            <title>
+                Generating DDL SQL
+            </title>
+            <indexterm zone="ref_guide_ddl_examples">
+                <primary>
+                    mapping tool
+                </primary>
+                <secondary>
+                    DDL generation
+                </secondary>
+            </indexterm>
+            <indexterm zone="ref_guide_ddl_examples">
+                <primary>
+                    DDL
+                </primary>
+                <secondary>
+                    with mapping tool
+                </secondary>
+            </indexterm>
+            <para>
+The examples below show how to use the mapping tool to generate DDL SQL scripts,
+rather than modifying the database directly.
+            </para>
+            <example id="ref_guid_mapping_ddl_full_ddl">
+                <title>
+                    Create DDL for Current Mappings
+                </title>
+                <para>
+This example uses your existing mappings to determine the needed schema, then
+writes the SQL to create that schema to <filename>create.sql</filename>.
+                </para>
+<programlisting>
 mappingtool -a buildSchema -sa build -sql create.sql Magazine.java
 </programlisting>
-          </example>
-          <example id="ref_guid_mapping_ddl_part_ddl">
-            <title>Create DDL to Update Database for Current 
-        Mappings</title>
-            <para>
-        This example uses your existing mappings to determine the 
-        needed schema.  It then writes the SQL to add any missing 
-        tables and columns to the current schema to 
-        <filename>update.sql</filename>.
-        </para>
-            <programlisting format="linespecific">
+            </example>
+            <example id="ref_guid_mapping_ddl_part_ddl">
+                <title>
+                    Create DDL to Update Database for Current 
+        Mappings
+                </title>
+                <para>
+This example uses your existing mappings to determine the needed schema. It then
+writes the SQL to add any missing tables and columns to the current schema to
+<filename>update.sql</filename>.
+                </para>
+<programlisting>
 mappingtool -a buildSchema -sql update.sql Magazine.java
 </programlisting>
-          </example>
+            </example>
         </section>
         <section id="ref_guide_mapping_synch">
-          <title>Runtime Forward Mapping</title>
-          <indexterm zone="ref_guide_mapping_synch">
-            <primary>forward mapping</primary>
-            <secondary>automatic runtime mapping</secondary>
-          </indexterm>
-          <indexterm zone="ref_guide_mapping_synch">
-            <primary>mapping metadata</primary>
-            <secondary>automatic runtime mapping</secondary>
-          </indexterm>
-          <para>
-      You can configure OpenJPA to automatically run the mapping tool 
-      at runtime through the 
-      <link linkend="openjpa.jdbc.SynchronizeMappings"><literal>
-      openjpa.jdbc.SynchronizeMappings</literal></link> configuration 
-      property.  Using this property saves you the trouble of running 
-      the mapping tool manually, and is meant for use during rapid 
-      test/debug cycles.
-      </para>
-          <para>
-      In order to enable automatic runtime mapping, you must first list
-      all your persistent classes as described in
-      <xref linkend="ref_guide_pc_pcclasses"/>.
-      </para>
-          <para>
-      OpenJPA will run the mapping tool on these classes when your 
-      application obtains its first <classname>EntityManager</classname>.
-      </para>
-          <para>
-      The <literal>openjpa.jdbc.SynchronizeMappings</literal> property is
-      a plugin string (see <xref linkend="ref_guide_conf_plugins"/>) 
-      where the class name is the mapping tool action to invoke, and
-      the properties are the <classname>MappingTool</classname> class' 
-      JavaBean properties.  These properties correspond go the long 
-      versions of the tool's command line flags.
-      </para>
-          <example id="ref_guide_mapping_synchex">
-            <title>Configuring Runtime Forward Mapping</title>
-            <programlisting format="linespecific">
+            <title>
+                Runtime Forward Mapping
+            </title>
+            <indexterm zone="ref_guide_mapping_synch">
+                <primary>
+                    forward mapping
+                </primary>
+                <secondary>
+                    automatic runtime mapping
+                </secondary>
+            </indexterm>
+            <indexterm zone="ref_guide_mapping_synch">
+                <primary>
+                    mapping metadata
+                </primary>
+                <secondary>
+                    automatic runtime mapping
+                </secondary>
+            </indexterm>
+            <para>
+You can configure OpenJPA to automatically run the mapping tool at runtime
+through the <link linkend="openjpa.jdbc.SynchronizeMappings"><literal>
+openjpa.jdbc.SynchronizeMappings</literal></link> configuration property. Using
+this property saves you the trouble of running the mapping tool manually, and is
+meant for use during rapid test/debug cycles.
+            </para>
+            <para>
+In order to enable automatic runtime mapping, you must first list all your
+persistent classes as described in <xref linkend="ref_guide_pc_pcclasses">
+</xref>.
+            </para>
+            <para>
+OpenJPA will run the mapping tool on these classes when your application obtains
+its first <classname>EntityManager</classname>.
+            </para>
+            <para>
+The <literal>openjpa.jdbc.SynchronizeMappings</literal> property is a plugin
+string (see <xref linkend="ref_guide_conf_plugins"></xref>) where the class
+name is the mapping tool action to invoke, and the properties are the
+<classname>MappingTool</classname> class' JavaBean properties. These properties
+correspond go the long versions of the tool's command line flags.
+            </para>
+            <example id="ref_guide_mapping_synchex">
+                <title>
+                    Configuring Runtime Forward Mapping
+                </title>
+<programlisting>
 &lt;property name="openjpa.jdbc.SynchronizeMappings" value="buildSchema(ForeignKeys=true)"/&gt;
 </programlisting>
-            <para>
-        The setting above corresponds to running the following command:
-        </para>
-            <programlisting format="linespecific">
+                <para>
+The setting above corresponds to running the following command:
+                </para>
+<programlisting>
 mappingtool -a buildSchema -fk true
 </programlisting>
-          </example>
+            </example>
         </section>
-      </section>
-      <section id="ref_guide_pc_reverse">
-        <title>Reverse Mapping</title>
+    </section>
+    <section id="ref_guide_pc_reverse">
+        <title>
+            Reverse Mapping
+        </title>
         <indexterm zone="ref_guide_pc_reverse">
-          <primary>reverse mapping</primary>
+            <primary>
+                reverse mapping
+            </primary>
         </indexterm>
         <indexterm zone="ref_guide_pc_reverse">
-          <primary>reverse mapping tool</primary>
-          <seealso>reverse mapping</seealso>
+            <primary>
+                reverse mapping tool
+            </primary>
+            <seealso>
+                reverse mapping
+            </seealso>
         </indexterm>
         <indexterm>
-          <primary>mapping metadata</primary>
-          <secondary>reverse mapping</secondary>
-          <see>reverse mapping</see>
+            <primary>
+                mapping metadata
+            </primary>
+            <secondary>
+                reverse mapping
+            </secondary>
+            <see>
+                reverse mapping
+            </see>
         </indexterm>
         <para>
-    OpenJPA includes a <emphasis>reverse mapping</emphasis> tool for 
-    generating persistent class definitions, complete with 
-    metadata, from an existing database schema.  You do not 
-    have to use the reverse mapping tool to access an existing schema; you 
-    are free to write your classes and mappings yourself, as described in
-    <xref linkend="ref_guide_mapping_middle"/>.  The reverse mapping tool, 
-    however, can give you an excellent starting point from which to grow 
-    your persistent classes.
-    </para>
-<!-- ### EJBDOC -->
+OpenJPA includes a <emphasis>reverse mapping</emphasis> tool for generating
+persistent class definitions, complete with metadata, from an existing database
+schema. You do not have to use the reverse mapping tool to access an existing
+schema; you are free to write your classes and mappings yourself, as described
+in <xref linkend="ref_guide_mapping_middle"></xref>. The reverse mapping tool,
+however, can give you an excellent starting point from which to grow your
+persistent classes.
+        </para>
+        <!-- ### -->
         <note>
-          <para>
-      The reverse mapping tool in this release does not yet output JPA 
-      annotations.  It is limited to JDO metadata output.
-      </para>
+            <para>
+The reverse mapping tool in this release does not yet output JPA annotations. It
+is limited to JDO metadata output.
+            </para>
         </note>
         <para>
-    To use the reverse mapping tool, follow the steps below:
-    </para>
+To use the reverse mapping tool, follow the steps below:
+        </para>
         <orderedlist>
-          <listitem>
-            <para>
-        Use the <link linkend="ref_guide_schema_schematool">
-        schema tool</link> to export your current schema 
-        to an XML schema file.  You can skip this step and the next
-        step if you want to run the reverse mapping tool directly
-        against the database.
-        </para>
-            <example id="ref_guide_pc_reverse_schemagen">
-              <title>Reflection with the Schema Tool</title>
-              <programlisting format="linespecific">
+            <listitem>
+                <para>
+Use the <link linkend="ref_guide_schema_schematool"> schema tool</link> to
+export your current schema to an XML schema file. You can skip this step and the
+next step if you want to run the reverse mapping tool directly against the
+database.
+                </para>
+                <example id="ref_guide_pc_reverse_schemagen">
+                    <title>
+                        Reflection with the Schema Tool
+                    </title>
+<programlisting>
 schematool -a reflect -f schema.xml
 </programlisting>
-            </example>
-          </listitem>
-          <listitem>
-            <para>
-        Examine the generated schema file.  JDBC drivers often provide
-        incomplete or faulty metadata, in which case the file will
-        not exactly match the actual schema. 
-        Alter the XML file to match the true schema.  The XML format 
-        for the schema file is described in
-        <xref linkend="ref_guide_schema_xml"/>.
-        </para>
-            <para>
-        After fixing any errors in the schema file, modify the XML
-        to include foreign keys between all relations.
-        The schema tool will have automatically detected existing
-        foreign key constraints; many schemas, however, do not employ 
-        database foreign keys for every relation.  By manually
-        adding any missing foreign keys, you will give the reverse 
-        mapping tool the information it needs to generate the 
-        proper relations between the persistent classes it creates.
-        </para>
-          </listitem>
-          <listitem>
-            <para>
-        Run the reverse mapping tool on the finished schema file.
-        If you do not supply the schema file to reverse map, the tool 
-        will run directly against the schema in the database.  The
-        tool can be run via the included
-        <literal>reversemappingtool</literal> script, or through
-        its Java class, 
-        <ulink url="../apidocs/org/apache/openjpa/jdbc/meta/ReverseMappingTool"><classname>org.apache.openjpa.jdbc.meta.ReverseMappingTool</classname></ulink>.
-        </para>
-            <example id="ref_guide_pc_reverse_reversemappingtool">
-              <title>Using the Reverse Mapping Tool</title>
-              <programlisting format="linespecific">
+                </example>
+            </listitem>
+            <listitem>
+                <para>
+Examine the generated schema file. JDBC drivers often provide incomplete or
+faulty metadata, in which case the file will not exactly match the actual
+schema. Alter the XML file to match the true schema. The XML format for the
+schema file is described in <xref linkend="ref_guide_schema_xml"></xref>.
+                </para>
+                <para>
+After fixing any errors in the schema file, modify the XML to include foreign
+keys between all relations. The schema tool will have automatically detected
+existing foreign key constraints; many schemas, however, do not employ database
+foreign keys for every relation. By manually adding any missing foreign keys,
+you will give the reverse mapping tool the information it needs to generate the
+proper relations between the persistent classes it creates.
+                </para>
+            </listitem>
+            <listitem>
+                <para>
+Run the reverse mapping tool on the finished schema file. If you do not supply
+the schema file to reverse map, the tool will run directly against the schema in
+the database. The tool can be run via the included <literal>reversemappingtool
+</literal> script, or through its Java class,
+<ulink url="../apidocs/org/apache/openjpa/jdbc/meta/ReverseMappingTool">
+<classname>org.apache.openjpa.jdbc.meta.ReverseMappingTool</classname></ulink>.
+                </para>
+                <example id="ref_guide_pc_reverse_reversemappingtool">
+                    <title>
+                        Using the Reverse Mapping Tool
+                    </title>
+<programlisting>
 reversemappingtool -pkg com.xyz -d ~/src -cp customizer.properties schema.xml
 </programlisting>
-            </example>
-            <para>
-          In addition to OpenJPA's <link linkend="ref_guide_conf_devtools">
-        standard configuration flags</link>, including 
-        <link linkend="ref_guide_conf_devtools_format">code formatting
-        options</link>, the reverse mapping tool recognizes the
-        following command line arguments:
+                </example>
+                <para>
+In addition to OpenJPA's <link linkend="ref_guide_conf_devtools"> standard
+configuration flags</link>, including
+<link linkend="ref_guide_conf_devtools_format">code formatting options</link>,
+the reverse mapping tool recognizes the following command line arguments:
+                </para>
+                <itemizedlist>
+                    <listitem>
+                        <para>
+<literal>-schemas/-s &lt;schema and table names&gt;</literal>: A
+comma-separated list of schema and table names to reverse map, if no XML schema
+file is supplied. Each element of the list must follow the naming conventions
+for the <literal>openjpa.jdbc.Schemas</literal> property described in
+<xref linkend="ref_guide_schema_info_list"></xref>. In fact, if this flag is
+omitted, it defaults to the value of the <literal>Schemas</literal> property. If
+the <literal>Schemas</literal> property is not defined, all schemas will be
+reverse-mapped.
+                        </para>
+                    </listitem>
+                    <listitem>
+                        <para>
+<literal>-package/-pkg &lt;package name&gt;</literal>: The package name of the
+generated classes. If no package name is given, the generated code will not
+contain package declarations.
+                        </para>
+                    </listitem>
+                    <listitem>
+                        <para>
+<literal>-directory/-d &lt;output directory&gt;</literal>: All generated code
+and metadata will be written to the directory at this path. If the path does not
+match the package of a class, the package structure will be created beneath this
+directory. Defaults to the current directory.
+                        </para>
+                    </listitem>
+                    <listitem>
+                        <para>
+<literal>-useSchemaName/-sn &lt;true/t | false/f&gt;</literal>: Set this flag
+to <literal>true</literal> to include the schema as well as table name in the
+name of each generated class. This can be useful when dealing with multiple
+schemas with same-named tables.
+                        </para>
+                    </listitem>
+                    <listitem>
+                        <para>
+<literal>-useForeignKeyName/-fkn &lt;true/t | false/f&gt;</literal>: Set this
+flag to <literal>true</literal> if you would like field names for relations to
+be based on the database foreign key name. By default, relation field names are
+derived from the name of the related class.
+                        </para>
+                    </listitem>
+                    <listitem>
+                        <para>
+<literal>-nullableAsObject/-no &lt;true/t | false/f&gt;</literal>: By default,
+all non-foreign key columns are mapped to primitives. Set this flag to <literal>
+true</literal> to generate primitive wrapper fields instead for columns that
+allow null values.
+                        </para>
+                    </listitem>
+                    <listitem>
+                        <para>
+<literal>-blobAsObject/-bo &lt;true/t | false/f&gt;</literal>: By default, all
+binary columns are mapped to <classname>byte[]</classname> fields. Set this flag
+to <literal>true</literal> to map them to <classname>Object</classname> fields
+instead. Note that when mapped this way, the column is presumed to contain a
+serialized Java object.
+                        </para>
+                    </listitem>
+                    <listitem>
+                        <para>
+<literal>-primaryKeyOnJoin/-pkj &lt;true/t | false/f&gt;</literal>: The
+standard reverse mapping tool behavior is to map all tables with primary keys to
+persistent classes. If your schema has primary keys on many-many join tables as
+well, set this flag to <literal>true</literal> to avoid creating classes for
+those tables.
+                        </para>
+                    </listitem>
+                    <listitem>
+                        <para>
+<literal>-inverseRelations/-ir &lt;true/t | false/f&gt;</literal>: Set to
+<literal>false</literal> to prevent the creation of inverse 1-many/1-1 relations
+for every many-1/1-1 relation detected.
+                        </para>
+                    </listitem>
+                    <listitem>
+                        <para>
+<literal>-useDatastoreIdentity/-ds &lt;true/t | false/f&gt;</literal>: Set to
+<literal>true</literal> to use datastore identity for tables that have single
+numeric primary key columns. The tool typically uses application identity for
+all generated classes.
+                        </para>
+                    </listitem>
+                    <listitem>
+                        <para>
+<literal>-useBuiltinIdentityClass/-bic &lt;true/t | false/f&gt;</literal>: Set
+to <literal>false</literal> to prevent the tool from using built-in application
+identity classes when possible. This will force the tool to to create custom
+application identity classes even when there is only one primary key column.
+                        </para>
+                    </listitem>
+                    <listitem>
+                        <para>
+<literal>-innerIdentityClasses/-inn &lt;true/t | false/f&gt;</literal>: Set to
+<literal>true</literal> to have any generated application identity classes be
+created as static inner classes within the persistent classes. Defaults to
+<literal>false</literal>.
+                        </para>
+                    </listitem>
+                    <listitem>
+                        <para>
+<literal>-identityClassSuffix/-is &lt;suffix&gt;</literal>: Suffix to append to
+class names to form application identity class names, or for inner identity
+classes, the inner class name. Defaults to <literal>Id</literal>.
+                        </para>
+                    </listitem>
+                    <listitem>
+                        <para>
+<literal>-typeMap/-typ &lt;type mapping&gt;</literal>: A string that specifies
+the default Java classes to generate for each SQL type that is seen in the
+schema. The format is <literal> SQLTYPE1=JavaClass1,SQLTYPE2=JavaClass2
+</literal>. The SQL type name first looks for a customization based on <literal>
+SQLTYPE(SIZE,PRECISION)</literal>, then <literal>SQLTYPE(SIZE)</literal>, then
+<literal>SQLTYPE(SIZE,PRECISION)</literal>. So if a column whose type name is
+<literal>CHAR</literal> is found, it will first look for the <literal>
+CHAR(50,0)</literal> type name specification, then it will look for <literal>
+CHAR(50)</literal>, and finally it will just look for <literal>CHAR</literal>.
+For example, to generate a char array for every <literal>CHAR</literal> column
+whose size is exactly 50, and to generate a <literal>short</literal> for every
+type name of <literal>INTEGER</literal>, you might specify: <literal>
+CHAR(50)=char[],INTEGER=short</literal>. Note that since various databases
+report different type names differently, one database's type name specification
+might not work for another database. Enable <literal>TRACE</literal> level
+logging on the <literal>MetaData</literal> channel to track which type names
+OpenJPA is examining.
+                        </para>
+                    </listitem>
+                    <listitem>
+                        <para>
+<literal>-customizerClass/-cc &lt;class name&gt;</literal>: The full class name
+of a
+<ulink url="../apidocs/org/apache/openjpa/jdbc/meta/ReverseCustomizer.html">
+<classname>org.apache.openjpa.jdbc.meta.ReverseCustomizer</classname></ulink>
+customization plugin. If you do not specify a reverse customizer of your own,
+the system defaults to a
+<ulink url="../apidocs/org/apache/openjpa/jdbc/meta/PropertiesReverseCustomizer.html">
+<classname>PropertiesReverseCustomizer</classname></ulink>. This customizer
+allows you to specify simple customization options in the properties file given
+with the <literal>-customizerProperties</literal> flag below. We present the
+available property keys <link linkend="ref_guide_pc_reverse_custom"> below
+</link>.
+                        </para>
+                    </listitem>
+                    <listitem>
+                        <para>
+<literal>-customizerProperties/-cp &lt;properties file or resource&gt;</literal>
+: The path or resource name of a properties file to pass to the reverse
+customizer on initialization.
+                        </para>
+                    </listitem>
+                    <listitem>
+                        <para>
+<literal>-customizer./-c.&lt;property name&gt; &lt;property value&gt;</literal>
+: The given property name will be matched with the corresponding Java bean
+property in the specified reverse customizer, and set to the given value.
+                        </para>
+                    </listitem>
+                </itemizedlist>
+                <para>
+Running the tool will generate <filename>.java</filename> files for each
+generated class (and its application identity class, if applicable), along with
+all necessary persistence metadata and mappings.
+                </para>
+            </listitem>
+            <listitem>
+                <para>
+Examine the generated class, metadata, and mapping information, and modify it as
+necessary. Remember that the reverse mapping tool only provides a starting
+point, and you are free to make whatever modifications you like to the code it
+generates.
+                </para>
+                <para>
+After you are satisfied with the generated classes and their mappings, you
+should first compile them with <literal>javac</literal>, <literal>jikes
+</literal>, or your favorite Java compiler. Make sure the classes and their
+metadata are located in the directory corresponding to the <literal>-package
+</literal> flag you gave the reverse mapping tool. Finally, enhance the classes
+if necessary (see <xref linkend="ref_guide_pc_enhance"></xref> ).
+                </para>
+            </listitem>
+        </orderedlist>
+        <para>
+Your persistent classes are now ready to access your existing schema.
         </para>
-            <itemizedlist>
-              <listitem>
-                <para><literal>-schemas/-s &lt;schema and table names&gt;
-            </literal>: A comma-separated list of schema and 
-            table names to reverse map, if no XML schema file is
-            supplied.  Each element of the list must follow the 
-            naming conventions for the <literal>openjpa.jdbc.Schemas
-            </literal> property described in 
-            <xref linkend="ref_guide_schema_info_list"/>.  In fact, 
-            if this flag is omitted, it defaults to the value of the
-            <literal>Schemas</literal> property.  If the
-            <literal>Schemas</literal> property is not defined,
-            all schemas will be reverse-mapped.
-            </para>
-              </listitem>
-              <listitem>
-                <para><literal>-package/-pkg &lt;package name&gt;</literal>: 
-            The package name of the generated classes.  If no
-            package name is given, the generated code will not 
-            contain package declarations.
-            </para>
-              </listitem>
-              <listitem>
-                <para><literal>-directory/-d &lt;output directory&gt;
-            </literal>: All generated code and metadata will be
-            written to the directory at this path.  If the path does
-            not match the package of a class, the package
-            structure will be created beneath this directory.  
-            Defaults to the current directory.
-            </para>
-              </listitem>
-              <listitem>
-                <para><literal>-useSchemaName/-sn &lt;true/t | false/f&gt;
-            </literal>: Set this flag to <literal>true</literal> 
-            to include the schema as well as table name in the 
-            name of each generated class.  This can be useful when 
-            dealing with multiple schemas with same-named tables.
-            </para>
-              </listitem>
-              <listitem>
-                <para><literal>-useForeignKeyName/-fkn 
-            &lt;true/t | false/f&gt;</literal>: Set this flag to 
-            <literal>true</literal> if you would like field names 
-            for relations to be based on the database foreign key 
-            name.  By default, relation field names are derived 
-            from the name of the related class.
-            </para>
-              </listitem>
-              <listitem>
-                <para><literal>-nullableAsObject/-no &lt;true/t | false/f&gt;
-            </literal>: By default, all non-foreign key columns
-            are mapped to primitives.  Set this flag to 
-            <literal>true</literal> to generate primitive wrapper 
-            fields instead for columns that allow null values.
-            </para>
-              </listitem>
-              <listitem>
-                <para><literal>-blobAsObject/-bo &lt;true/t | false/f&gt;
-            </literal>: By default, all binary columns are mapped
-            to <classname>byte[]</classname> fields.  Set this flag
-            to <literal>true</literal> to map them to 
-            <classname>Object</classname> fields instead.  Note that
-            when mapped this way, the column is presumed to contain
-            a serialized Java object.
-            </para>
-              </listitem>
-              <listitem>
-                <para><literal>-primaryKeyOnJoin/-pkj &lt;true/t | false/f&gt;
-            </literal>: The standard reverse mapping tool behavior
-            is to map all tables with primary keys to persistent
-            classes.  If your schema has primary keys on 
-            many-many join tables as well, set this flag to 
-            <literal>true</literal> to avoid creating classes for 
-            those tables.
-            </para>
-              </listitem>
-              <listitem>
-                <para><literal>-inverseRelations/-ir &lt;true/t 
-            | false/f&gt;</literal>: Set to <literal>false</literal>
-            to prevent the creation of inverse 1-many/1-1 
-            relations for every many-1/1-1 relation detected.
-            </para>
-              </listitem>
-              <listitem>
-                <para><literal>-useDatastoreIdentity/-ds 
-            &lt;true/t | false/f&gt;</literal>: Set to 
-            <literal>true</literal> to use datastore identity 
-            for tables that have single numeric primary key 
-            columns.  The tool typically uses application identity 
-            for all generated classes.
-            </para>
-              </listitem>
-              <listitem>
-                <para><literal>-useBuiltinIdentityClass/-bic &lt;true/t 
-            | false/f&gt;</literal>: Set to <literal>false</literal>
-            to prevent the tool from using built-in application
-            identity classes when possible.  This will force the 
-            tool to to create custom application identity classes 
-            even when there is only one primary key column.
-            </para>
-              </listitem>
-              <listitem>
-                <para><literal>-innerIdentityClasses/-inn &lt;true/t 
-            | false/f&gt;</literal>: Set to <literal>true</literal>
-            to have any generated application identity classes be
-            created as static inner classes within the persistent
-            classes.  Defaults to <literal>false</literal>.  
-            </para>
-              </listitem>
-              <listitem>
-                <para><literal>-identityClassSuffix/-is 
-            &lt;suffix&gt;</literal>:  Suffix to append to class 
-            names to form application identity class names, or for 
-            inner identity classes, the inner class name.  
-            Defaults to <literal>Id</literal>.
-            </para>
-              </listitem>
-<!-- ### EJBDOC : need some EJB equiv -->
-<!-- ### EJBDOC : need some EJB equiv -->
-<!-- ### EJBDOC : need some EJB equiv form XML / anno -->
-              <listitem>
-                <para><literal>-typeMap/-typ &lt;type mapping&gt;</literal>: 
-            A string that specifies the default Java classes to 
-            generate for each SQL type that is seen in the schema. 
-            The format is <literal>
-            SQLTYPE1=JavaClass1,SQLTYPE2=JavaClass2</literal>.
-            The SQL type name first looks for a customization 
-            based on <literal>SQLTYPE(SIZE,PRECISION)</literal>, 
-            then <literal>SQLTYPE(SIZE)</literal>, then
-            <literal>SQLTYPE(SIZE,PRECISION)</literal>. So
-            if a column whose type name is
-            <literal>CHAR</literal> is found, it will first look
-            for the <literal>CHAR(50,0)</literal> type name
-            specification, then it will look for
-            <literal>CHAR(50)</literal>, and finally it will
-            just look for <literal>CHAR</literal>.
-            For example, to generate a char array for
-            every <literal>CHAR</literal> column whose size
-            is exactly 50, and to generate a
-            <literal>short</literal> for every type name of
-            <literal>INTEGER</literal>, you might specify:
-            <literal>CHAR(50)=char[],INTEGER=short</literal>.
-            Note that since various databases report different
-            type names differently, one database's type name
-            specification might not work for another database.
-            Enable <literal>TRACE</literal> level logging on the
-            <literal>MetaData</literal> channel to track which
-            type names OpenJPA is examining.
-            </para>
-              </listitem>
-              <listitem>
-                <para><literal>-customizerClass/-cc 
-            &lt;class name&gt;</literal>: The full class name of a
-            <ulink url="../apidocs/org/apache/openjpa/jdbc/meta/ReverseCustomizer.html"><classname>org.apache.openjpa.jdbc.meta.ReverseCustomizer</classname></ulink> customization plugin.  If you do
-            not specify a reverse customizer of your own, the 
-            system defaults to a  
-            <ulink url="../apidocs/org/apache/openjpa/jdbc/meta/PropertiesReverseCustomizer.html"><classname>PropertiesReverseCustomizer</classname></ulink>.  This customizer allows you to specify 
-            simple customization options in the properties file
-            given with the <literal>-customizerProperties</literal>
-            flag below.  We present the available property keys
-            <link linkend="ref_guide_pc_reverse_custom">
-            below</link>.
-            </para>
-              </listitem>
-              <listitem>
-                <para><literal>-customizerProperties/-cp &lt;properties
-            file or resource&gt;</literal>: The path or resource 
-            name of a properties file to pass to the reverse 
-            customizer on initialization.
-            </para>
-              </listitem>
-              <listitem>
-                <para><literal>-customizer./-c.&lt;property name&gt; 
-            &lt;property value&gt;</literal>: The given property
-            name will be matched with the corresponding Java bean
-            property in the specified reverse customizer, and set
-            to the given value.
+        <section id="ref_guide_pc_reverse_custom">
+            <title>
+                Customizing Reverse Mapping
+            </title>
+            <para>
+The <classname>org.apache.openjpa.jdbc.meta.ReverseCustomizer</classname> plugin
+interface allows you to customze the reverse mapping process. See the class
+<ulink url="../apidocs/org/apache/openjpa/jdbc/meta/ReverseCustomizer.html">
+Javadoc</ulink> for details on the hooks that this interface provides. Specify
+the concrete plugin implementation to use with the <literal>
+-customizerClass/-cc</literal> command-line flag, described in the preceding
+section.
+            </para>
+            <para>
+By default, the reverse mapping tool uses a
+<ulink url="../apidocs/org/apache/openjpa/jdbc/meta/PropertiesReverseCustomizer.html">
+<classname>org.apache.openjpa.jdbc.meta.PropertiesReverseCustomizer</classname>
+</ulink>. This customizer allows you to perform relatively simple
+customizations through the properties file named with the <literal>
+-customizerProperties</literal> tool flag. The customizer recognizes the
+following properties:
             </para>
-              </listitem>
+            <itemizedlist>
+                <listitem>
+                    <para>
+<literal>&lt;table name&gt;.table-type &lt;type&gt;</literal>: Override the
+default type of the table with name <literal>&lt;table name&gt;</literal>.
+Legal values are:
+                    </para>
+                    <itemizedlist>
+                        <listitem>
+                            <para>
+<literal>base</literal>: Primary table for a base class.
+                            </para>
+                        </listitem>
+                        <listitem>
+                            <para>
+<literal>secondary</literal>: Secondary table for a class. The table must have
+a foreign key joining to a class table.
+                            </para>
+                        </listitem>
+                        <listitem>
+                            <para>
+<literal>secondary-outer</literal>: Outer-joined secondary table for a class.
+The table must have a foreign key joining to a class table.
+                            </para>
+                        </listitem>
+                        <listitem>
+                            <para>
+<literal>association</literal>: Association table. The table must have two
+foreign keys to class tables.
+                            </para>
+                        </listitem>
+                        <listitem>
+                            <para>
+<literal>collection</literal>: Collection table. The table must have one
+foreign key to a class table and one data column.
+                            </para>
+                        </listitem>
+                        <listitem>
+                            <para>
+<literal>subclass</literal>: A joined subclass table. The table must have a
+foreign key to the superclass' table.
+                            </para>
+                        </listitem>
+                        <listitem>
+                            <para>
+<literal>none</literal>: The table should not be reverse-mapped.
+                            </para>
+                        </listitem>
+                    </itemizedlist>
+                </listitem>
+                <listitem>
+                    <para>
+<literal>&lt;class name&gt;.rename &lt;new class name&gt;</literal>: Override
+the given tool-generated name <literal>&lt;class name&gt;</literal> with a new
+value. Use full class names, including package. You are free to rename a class
+to a new package. Specify a value of <literal>none</literal> to reject the class
+and leave the corresponding table unmapped.
+                    </para>
+                </listitem>
+                <listitem>
+                    <para>
+<literal>&lt;table name&gt;.class-name &lt;new class name&gt;</literal>: Assign
+the given fully-qualified class name to the type created from the table with
+name <literal>&lt;table name&gt;</literal>. Use a value of <literal>none
+</literal> to prevent reverse mapping this table. This property can be used in
+place of the <literal>rename</literal> property.
+                    </para>
+                </listitem>
+                <listitem>
+                    <para>
+<literal>&lt;class name&gt;.identity &lt;datastore | builtin | identity class
+name&gt;</literal>: Set this property to <literal>datastore</literal> to use
+datastore identity for the class <literal>&lt;class name&gt;</literal>,
+<literal>builtin</literal> to use a built-in identity class, or the desired
+application identity class name. Give full class names, including package. You
+are free to change the package of the identity class this way. If the persistent
+class has been renamed, use the new class name for this property key. Remember
+that datastore identity requires a table with a single numeric primary key
+column, and built-in identity requires a single primary key column of any type.
+                    </para>
+                </listitem>
+                <listitem>
+                    <para>
+<literal>&lt;class name&gt;.&lt;field name&gt;.rename &lt;new field name&gt;
+</literal>: Override the tool-generated <literal>&lt;field name&gt;</literal> in
+class <literal>&lt;class name&gt;</literal> with the given name. Use the field
+owner's full class name in the property key. If the field owner's class was
+renamed, use the new class name. The property value should be the new field
+name, without the preceding class name. Use a value of <literal>none</literal>
+to reject the generated mapping and remove the field from the class.
+                    </para>
+                </listitem>
+                <listitem>
+                    <para>
+<literal>&lt;table name&gt;.&lt;column name&gt;.field-name &lt;new field
+name&gt;</literal>: Set the generated field name for the <literal>&lt;table
+name&gt;</literal> table's <literal>&lt;column name&gt;</literal> column. If
+this is a multi-column mapping, any of the columns can be used. Use a value of
+<literal>none</literal> to prevent the column and its associated columns from
+being reverse-mapped.
+                    </para>
+                </listitem>
+                <listitem>
+                    <para>
+<literal>&lt;class name&gt;.&lt;field name&gt;.type &lt;field type&gt;</literal>
+: The type to give the named field. Use full class names. If the field or the
+field's owner class has been renamed, use the new name.
+                    </para>
+                </listitem>
+                <listitem>
+                    <para>
+<literal>&lt;class name&gt;.&lt;field name&gt;.value</literal>: The initial
+value for the named field. The given string will be placed as-is in the
+generated Java code, so be sure it is valid Java. If the field or the field's
+owner class has been renamed, use the new name.
+                    </para>
+                </listitem>
             </itemizedlist>
             <para>
-        Running the tool will generate <filename>.java</filename> files 
-        for each generated class (and its application identity class,
-        if applicable), along with all necessary persistence metadata
-        and mappings. 
-        </para>
-          </listitem>
-          <listitem>
-            <para>
-        Examine the generated class, metadata, and mapping
-        information, and modify it as necessary.  Remember that
-        the reverse mapping tool only provides a starting point, and
-        you are free to make whatever modifications you like to the 
-        code it generates. 
-        </para>
-            <para>
-        After you are satisfied with the generated classes and their 
-        mappings, you should first compile them with 
-        <literal>javac</literal>, <literal>jikes</literal>, or your
-        favorite Java compiler.  Make sure the classes and their
-        metadata are located in the directory corresponding to
-        the <literal>-package</literal> flag you gave the reverse
-        mapping tool.  Finally, enhance the classes if necessary (see
-        <xref linkend="ref_guide_pc_enhance"/>).
-        </para>
-          </listitem>
-        </orderedlist>
-        <para>
-    Your persistent classes are now ready to access your existing schema.
-    </para>
-        <section id="ref_guide_pc_reverse_custom">
-          <title>Customizing Reverse Mapping</title>
-          <para>
-      The <classname>org.apache.openjpa.jdbc.meta.ReverseCustomizer</classname> plugin 
-      interface allows you to customze the reverse mapping process.  See 
-      the class
-      <ulink url="../apidocs/org/apache/openjpa/jdbc/meta/ReverseCustomizer.html">
-      Javadoc</ulink> for details on the hooks that this interface
-      provides.  Specify the concrete plugin implementation to use with
-      the <literal>-customizerClass/-cc</literal> command-line flag, 
-      described in the preceding section.
-      </para>
-          <para>
-      By default, the reverse mapping tool uses a
-      <ulink url="../apidocs/org/apache/openjpa/jdbc/meta/PropertiesReverseCustomizer.html"><classname>org.apache.openjpa.jdbc.meta.PropertiesReverseCustomizer</classname></ulink>.  This customizer allows you to perform 
-      relatively simple customizations through the properties file named
-      with the <literal>-customizerProperties</literal> tool flag.  
-      The customizer recognizes the following properties:
-      </para>
-          <itemizedlist>
-            <listitem>
-              <para><literal>&lt;table name&gt;.table-type &lt;type&gt;
-          </literal>: Override the default type of the table with
-          name <literal>&lt;table name&gt;</literal>.  Legal values 
-          are: 
-          </para>
-              <itemizedlist>
-                <listitem>
-                  <para><literal>base</literal>: Primary table for a base
-              class.
-              </para>
-                </listitem>
-                <listitem>
-                  <para><literal>secondary</literal>: Secondary table for 
-              a class.  The table must have a foreign key joining
-              to a class table.
-              </para>
-                </listitem>
-                <listitem>
-                  <para><literal>secondary-outer</literal>: Outer-joined
-              secondary table for a class.  The table must have 
-              a foreign key joining to a class table.
-              </para>
-                </listitem>
-                <listitem>
-                  <para><literal>association</literal>: Association table.
-              The table must have two foreign keys to class 
-              tables.
-              </para>
-                </listitem>
-                <listitem>
-                  <para><literal>collection</literal>: Collection table.
-              The table must have one foreign key to a class
-              table and one data column.
-              </para>
-                </listitem>
-                <listitem>
-                  <para><literal>subclass</literal>: A joined subclass
-              table.  The table must have a foreign key to the
-              superclass' table.
-              </para>
-                </listitem>
-                <listitem>
-                  <para><literal>none</literal>: The table should not be
-              reverse-mapped.
-              </para>
-                </listitem>
-              </itemizedlist>
-            </listitem>
-            <listitem>
-              <para><literal>&lt;class name&gt;.rename &lt;new class name&gt;
-          </literal>: Override the given tool-generated name 
-          <literal>&lt;class name&gt;</literal>
-          with a new value.  Use full class names, including package.
-          You are free to rename a class to a new package.  Specify
-          a value of <literal>none</literal> to reject the class and 
-          leave the corresponding table unmapped.
-          </para>
-            </listitem>
-            <listitem>
-              <para><literal>&lt;table name&gt;.class-name 
-          &lt;new class name&gt;</literal>: Assign the given
-          fully-qualified class name to the type created from the
-          table with name <literal>&lt;table name&gt;</literal>.
-          Use a value of <literal>none</literal> to prevent reverse
-          mapping this table.  This property can be used in place
-          of the <literal>rename</literal> property.
-          </para>
-            </listitem>
-            <listitem>
-              <para><literal>&lt;class name&gt;.identity &lt;datastore | 
-          builtin | identity class name&gt;</literal>: Set this 
-          property to <literal>datastore</literal> to use datastore 
-          identity for the class <literal>&lt;class 
-          name&gt;</literal>, <literal>builtin</literal> to use 
-          a built-in identity class, or the desired
-          application identity class name.  Give full class names, 
-          including package.  You are free to change the package of 
-          the identity class this way.  If the persistent class has 
-          been renamed, use the new class name for this property key.
-          Remember that datastore identity requires a table with a 
-          single numeric primary key column, and built-in identity
-          requires a single primary key column of any type.
-          </para>
-            </listitem>
-            <listitem>
-              <para><literal>&lt;class name&gt;.&lt;field name&gt;.rename
-          &lt;new field name&gt;</literal>: Override the 
-          tool-generated <literal>&lt;field name&gt;</literal> in
-          class <literal>&lt;class name&gt;</literal> with the given 
-          name.  Use the field owner's full class name in the 
-          property key.  If the
-          field owner's class was renamed, use the new class name.
-          The property value should be the new field name, without 
-          the preceding class name.  Use a value of <literal>none
-          </literal> to reject the generated mapping and remove the
-          field from the class.
-          </para>
-            </listitem>
-            <listitem>
-              <para><literal>&lt;table name&gt;.&lt;column name&gt;.field-name
-          &lt;new field name&gt;</literal>: Set the generated field
-          name for the <literal>&lt;table name&gt;</literal> table's
-          <literal>&lt;column name&gt;</literal> column.  If this is
-          a multi-column mapping, any of the columns can be used.
-          Use a value of <literal>none</literal> to prevent the column
-          and its associated columns from being reverse-mapped.
-          </para>
-            </listitem>
-            <listitem>
-              <para><literal>&lt;class name&gt;.&lt;field name&gt;.type
-          &lt;field type&gt;</literal>: The type to give the named 
-          field.  Use full class names.  If the field  or the field's
-          owner class has been renamed, use the new name.
-          </para>
-            </listitem>
-            <listitem>
-              <para><literal>&lt;class name&gt;.&lt;field name&gt;.value
-          </literal>: The initial value for the named field.  The 
-          given string will be placed as-is in the generated Java 
-          code, so be sure it is valid Java.  If the
-          field or the field's owner class has been renamed, use the 
-          new name.
-          </para>
-            </listitem>
-          </itemizedlist>
-          <para>
-      All property keys are optional; if not specified, the customizer 
-      keeps the default value generated by the reverse mapping tool.
-      </para>
-          <example id="ref_guide_pc_reverse_custom_ex">
-            <title>Customizing Reverse Mapping with Properties</title>
-            <programlisting format="linespecific">
+All property keys are optional; if not specified, the customizer keeps the
+default value generated by the reverse mapping tool.
+            </para>
+            <example id="ref_guide_pc_reverse_custom_ex">
+                <title>
+                    Customizing Reverse Mapping with Properties
+                </title>
+<programlisting>
 reversemappingtool -pkg com.xyz -cp custom.properties schema.xml
 </programlisting>
-            <para>
-        Example <filename>custom.properties</filename>:
-        </para>
-            <programlisting format="linespecific">
+                <para>
+Example <filename>custom.properties</filename>:
+                </para>
+<programlisting>
 com.xyz.TblMagazine.rename:             com.xyz.Magazine
 com.xyz.TblArticle.rename:              com.xyz.Article
 com.xyz.TblPubCompany.rename:           com.xyz.pub.Company
@@ -806,483 +842,534 @@
 
 com.xyz.pub.Company.identity:           com.xyz.pub.CompanyId
 </programlisting>
-          </example>
-          <para>
-      Your OpenJPA download includes the <classname>
-      PropertiesReverseCustomizer</classname> source code.  You can use
-      this code as an example when writing your own customization class.
-      </para>
+            </example>
+            <para>
+Your OpenJPA download includes the <classname> PropertiesReverseCustomizer
+</classname> source code. You can use this code as an example when writing your
+own customization class.
+            </para>
         </section>
-      </section>
-      <section id="ref_guide_mapping_middle">
-        <title>Meet-in-the-Middle Mapping</title>
+    </section>
+    <section id="ref_guide_mapping_middle">
+        <title>
+            Meet-in-the-Middle Mapping
+        </title>
         <indexterm zone="ref_guide_pc_reverse">
-          <primary>meet-in-the-middle mapping</primary>
+            <primary>
+                meet-in-the-middle mapping
+            </primary>
         </indexterm>
         <indexterm zone="ref_guide_pc_reverse">
-          <primary>reverse mapping tool</primary>
-          <seealso>reverse mapping</seealso>
+            <primary>
+                reverse mapping tool
+            </primary>
+            <seealso>
+                reverse mapping
+            </seealso>
         </indexterm>
         <indexterm>
-          <primary>mapping metadata</primary>
-          <secondary>meet-in-the-middle mapping</secondary>
-          <see>meet-in-the-middle mapping</see>
-        </indexterm>
-        <para>
-    In the <emphasis>meet-in-the-middle</emphasis> mapping approach, you
-    control both the relational model and the object model.  It is up 
-    to you to define the mappings between these models.  OpenJPA has two 
-    tools to aid meet-in-the-middle mapping.  First, the OpenJPA Workbench 
-    includes a visual interface to wiring your classes and schema together.
-<!-- ### JDO2MIG
-    See <xref linkend="gui_intro"/> to get started with the Workbench.
--->
-    Second, the mapping tool's <literal>validate</literal> action is useful
-    to meet-in-the-middle mappers.  We examined the mapping tool in
-    <xref linkend="ref_guide_mapping_mappingtool"/>.  The <literal>validate
-    </literal> action verifies that the mapping information for a class 
-    matches the class definition and the existing schema.  It throws an
-    informative exception when your mappings are incorrect.
-    </para>
+            <primary>
+                mapping metadata
+            </primary>
+            <secondary>
+                meet-in-the-middle mapping
+            </secondary>
+            <see>
+                meet-in-the-middle mapping
+            </see>
+        </indexterm>
+        <para>
+In the <emphasis>meet-in-the-middle</emphasis>  
+mapping approach, you control both the relational model and the object model. It
+is up to you to define the mappings between these models.  The mapping
+tool's <literal>validate</literal> action is useful to meet-in-the-middle
+mappers. We examined the mapping tool in
+<xref linkend="ref_guide_mapping_mappingtool"></xref>. The <literal>validate
+</literal> action verifies that the mapping information for a class matches the
+class definition and the existing schema. It throws an informative exception
+when your mappings are incorrect.
+        </para>
         <example id="ref_guide_mapping_mappingtool_validate">
-          <title>Validating Mappings</title>
-          <programlisting format="linespecific">
+            <title>
+                Validating Mappings
+            </title>
+<programlisting>
 mappingtool -a validate Magazine.java
 </programlisting>
         </example>
         <para>
-    The <literal>buildSchema</literal> action we discussed in
-    <xref linkend="ref_guide_mapping_mappingtool"/> is also somewhat useful
-    during meet-in-the-middle mapping.  Unlike the 
-    <literal>validate</literal> action, which throws an exception if
-    your mapping data does not match the existing schema, 
-    the <literal>buildSchema</literal> action assumes your mapping data 
-    is correct, and modifies the schema to match your mappings.  This lets 
-    you modify your mapping data manually, but saves you the hassle of 
-    using your database's tools to bring the schema up-to-date.
-    </para>
-        <para><literal>buildSchema</literal> is the default action when you use 
-    JPA mapping defaults (<xref linkend="ref_guide_mapping_defaults"/>).
-    </para>
+The <literal>buildSchema</literal> action we discussed in
+<xref linkend="ref_guide_mapping_mappingtool"></xref> is also somewhat useful
+during meet-in-the-middle mapping. Unlike the <literal>validate</literal>
+action, which throws an exception if your mapping data does not match the
+existing schema, the <literal>buildSchema</literal> action assumes your mapping
+data is correct, and modifies the schema to match your mappings. This lets you
+modify your mapping data manually, but saves you the hassle of using your
+database's tools to bring the schema up-to-date.
+        </para>
+        <para>
+<literal>buildSchema</literal> is the default action when you use JPA mapping
+defaults ( <xref linkend="ref_guide_mapping_defaults"></xref> ).
+        </para>
         <example id="ref_guide_mapping_middle_buildschema_mid">
-          <title>Creating the Relational Schema from Mappings</title>
-          <programlisting format="linespecific">
+            <title>
+                Creating the Relational Schema from Mappings
+            </title>
+<programlisting>
 mappingtool Magazine.java
 </programlisting>
         </example>
-      </section>
-      <section id="ref_guide_mapping_defaults">
-        <title>Mapping Defaults</title>
+    </section>
+    <section id="ref_guide_mapping_defaults">
+        <title>
+            Mapping Defaults
+        </title>
         <indexterm zone="ref_guide_mapping_defaults">
-          <primary>MappingDefaults</primary>
+            <primary>
+                MappingDefaults
+            </primary>
         </indexterm>
         <indexterm>
-          <primary>mapping metadata</primary>
-          <secondary>defaults</secondary>
-          <see>MappingDefaults</see>
+            <primary>
+                mapping metadata
+            </primary>
+            <secondary>
+                defaults
+            </secondary>
+            <see>
+                MappingDefaults
+            </see>
         </indexterm>
         <para>
-    The previous sections showed how to use the mapping tool to generate
-    default mappings.  But how does the mapping tool know what mappings
-    to generate?  The answer lies in the
-    <ulink url="../apidocs/org/apache/openjpa/jdbc/meta/MappingDefaults.html"><classname>
-    org.apache.openjpa.jdbc.meta.MappingDefaults</classname></ulink> interface.  OpenJPA
-    uses an instance of this interface to decide how to name tables and
-    columns, where to put foreign keys, and generally how to create a
-    schema that matches your object model.  
-    </para>
+The previous sections showed how to use the mapping tool to generate default
+mappings. But how does the mapping tool know what mappings to generate? The
+answer lies in the
+<ulink url="../apidocs/org/apache/openjpa/jdbc/meta/MappingDefaults.html">
+<classname> org.apache.openjpa.jdbc.meta.MappingDefaults</classname></ulink>
+interface. OpenJPA uses an instance of this interface to decide how to name
+tables and columns, where to put foreign keys, and generally how to create a
+schema that matches your object model.
+        </para>
         <important>
-          <para>
-      OpenJPA relies on foreign key constraint information at runtime to
-      order SQL appropriately.  Be sure to set your mapping defaults to
-      reflect your existing database constraints, or use explicit
-      foreign key mappings as described in
-      <phrase><xref linkend="ref_guide_mapping_jpa_fk"/></phrase> 
-      
-      .
-      </para>
+            <para>
+OpenJPA relies on foreign key constraint information at runtime to order SQL
+appropriately. Be sure to set your mapping defaults to reflect your existing
+database constraints, or use explicit foreign key mappings as described in
+<phrase><xref linkend="ref_guide_mapping_jpa_fk"></xref></phrase>.
+            </para>
         </important>
         <para>
-    The <link linkend="openjpa.jdbc.MappingDefaults"><literal>
-    openjpa.jdbc.MappingDefaults</literal></link> configuration property
-    controls the <classname>MappingDefaults</classname> interface
-    implementation in use.  This is a plugin property (see
-    <xref linkend="ref_guide_conf_plugins"/>), so you can substitute your
-    own implementation or configure the existing ones.  OpenJPA includes the
-    following standard implementations:
-    </para>
-        <itemizedlist>
-          <listitem>
-            <para><literal>jpa</literal>: Provides defaults in compliance with
-        the JPA standard.  This is an alias for the
-        <ulink url="../apidocs/org/apache/openjpa/persistence/jdbc/PersistenceMappingDefaults.html"><classname>org.apache.openjpa.persistence.jdbc.PersistenceMappingDefaults
-        </classname></ulink> class.  This class extends the 
-        <classname>MappingDefaultsImpl</classname> class described 
-        below, so it has all the same properties (though with 
-        different default values).
-        </para>
-          </listitem>
-          <listitem>
-            <para><phrase><literal>default</literal>:
-        </phrase>
-        This is an alias for the
-        <ulink url="../apidocs/org/apache/openjpa/jdbc/meta/MappingDefaultsImpl.html"><classname>org.apache.openjpa.jdbc.meta.MappingDefaultsImpl</classname></ulink> class.  This default implementation is highly 
-        configurable.  It has the following properties:
+The <link linkend="openjpa.jdbc.MappingDefaults"><literal>
+openjpa.jdbc.MappingDefaults</literal></link> configuration property controls
+the <classname>MappingDefaults</classname> interface implementation in use. This
+is a plugin property (see <xref linkend="ref_guide_conf_plugins"></xref> ), so
+you can substitute your own implementation or configure the existing ones.
+OpenJPA includes the following standard implementations:
         </para>
-            <itemizedlist>
-              <listitem>
-                <para><literal>DefaultMissingInfo</literal>: Whether to 
-            default missing column and table names rather than
-            throw an exception.  Defaults to false, meaning full
-            mappings are required at runtime and when using
-            mapping tool actions like <literal>buildSchema</literal>
-            and <literal>validate</literal>.
-            </para>
-                <para>
-            The <literal>jpa</literal> plugin above sets this
-            property to true to meet the JPA specification.
-            </para>
-              </listitem>
-              <listitem>
-                <para><literal>BaseClassStrategy</literal>: The default
-            mapping strategy for base classes.  You can specify a
-            built-in strategy alias or the full class name of a 
-            <link linkend="ref_guide_mapping_custom_class">
-            custom class strategy</link>.  You can also use OpenJPA's 
-            plugin format (see 
-            <xref linkend="ref_guide_conf_plugins"/>) 
-            to pass arguments to the strategy instance.  See the
-            <ulink url="../apidocs/org/apache/openjpa/jdbc/meta/strats/package-summary.html"><literal>org.apache.openjpa.jdbc.meta.strats</literal></ulink> package
-            for available strategies.
-            </para>
-              </listitem>
-              <listitem>
-                <para><literal>SubclassStrategy</literal>: The default
-            mapping strategy for subclasses.  You can specify a
-            builtin strategy alias or the full class name of a 
-            <link linkend="ref_guide_mapping_custom_class">
-            custom class strategy</link>.  You can also use OpenJPA's 
-            plugin format (see 
-            <xref linkend="ref_guide_conf_plugins"/>) 
-            to pass arguments to the strategy instance.  
-            Common strategies are <literal>vertical</literal> and
-            <literal>flat</literal>, the default.  See the
-            <ulink url="../apidocs/org/apache/openjpa/jdbc/meta/strats/package-summary.html"><literal>org.apache.openjpa.jdbc.meta.strats</literal></ulink> package
-            for all available strategies.
-            </para>
-              </listitem>
-              <listitem>
-                <para><literal>VersionStrategy</literal>: The default
-            version strategy for classes without a
-            version field.  You can specify a builtin strategy 
-            alias or the full class name of a 
-            <link linkend="ref_guide_mapping_custom_versdiscrim">
-            custom version strategy</link>.  You can also use 
-            OpenJPA's plugin format (see 
-            <xref linkend="ref_guide_conf_plugins"/>) 
-            to pass arguments to the strategy instance.  
-            Common strategies are <literal>none</literal>,
-            <literal>state-comparison</literal>, <literal>
-            timestamp</literal>, and <literal>
-            version-number</literal>, the default.  See the
-            <ulink url="../apidocs/org/apache/openjpa/jdbc/meta/strats/package-summary.html"><literal>org.apache.openjpa.jdbc.meta.strats</literal></ulink> package
-            for all available strategies.
-            </para>
-              </listitem>
-              <listitem>
-                <para><literal>DiscriminatorStrategy</literal>: The default
-            discriminator strategy when no discriminator value is
-            given.  You can specify a builtin strategy alias or 
-            the full class name of a 
-            <link linkend="ref_guide_mapping_custom_versdiscrim">
-            custom discriminator strategy</link>.  You can also use 
-            OpenJPA's plugin format (see 
-            <xref linkend="ref_guide_conf_plugins"/>) 
-            to pass arguments to the strategy instance.  
-            Common strategies are <literal>final</literal> for
-            a base class without subclasses, <literal>none
-            </literal> to use joins to subclass tables rather than 
-            a discriminator column, and <literal>
-            class-name</literal>, the default.  See the
-            <ulink url="../apidocs/org/apache/openjpa/jdbc/meta/strats/package-summary.html"><literal>org.apache.openjpa.jdbc.meta.strats</literal></ulink> package
-            for all available strategies.
-            </para>
-              </listitem>
-              <listitem>
-                <para><literal>FieldStrategies</literal>: This property
-            associates field types with custom strategies.  The 
-            format of this property is similar to that of plugin 
-            strings (see <xref linkend="ref_guide_conf_plugins"/>),
-            without the class name.  It is a comma-separated list 
-            of key/value pairs, where each key is a possible field 
-            type, and each value is itself a plugin string 
-            describing the strategy for that type.  We present an 
-            example below.  See 
-            <xref linkend="ref_guide_mapping_custom_field"/> for
-            information on custum field strategies.
-            </para>
-              </listitem>
-              <listitem>
-                <para><literal>ForeignKeyDeleteAction</literal>:
-            The default delete action of foreign keys representing 
-            relations to other objects. Recognized values include
-            <literal>restrict</literal>, <literal>cascade</literal>,

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