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From kwsut...@apache.org
Subject svn commit: r908837 [8/37] - /websites/production/openjpa/content/builds/2.3.0/apache-openjpa/docs/
Date Wed, 14 May 2014 22:22:26 GMT
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+<html><head>
+      <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=ISO-8859-1">
+   <title>2.&nbsp; Entity Lifecycle Management</title><base href="display"><link rel="stylesheet" type="text/css" href="css/docbook.css"><meta name="generator" content="DocBook XSL-NS Stylesheets V1.76.1"><link rel="home" href="manual.html" title="Apache OpenJPA 2.3 User's Guide"><link rel="up" href="jpa_overview_em.html" title="Chapter&nbsp;8.&nbsp; EntityManager"><link rel="prev" href="jpa_overview_em.html" title="Chapter&nbsp;8.&nbsp; EntityManager"><link rel="next" href="jpa_overview_em_lifeexamples.html" title="3.&nbsp; Lifecycle Examples"></head><body bgcolor="white" text="black" link="#0000FF" vlink="#840084" alink="#0000FF"><div class="navheader"><table width="100%" summary="Navigation header"><tr><th colspan="3" align="center">2.&nbsp;
+            Entity Lifecycle Management
+        </th></tr><tr><td width="20%" align="left"><a accesskey="p" href="jpa_overview_em.html">Prev</a>&nbsp;</td><th width="60%" align="center">Chapter&nbsp;8.&nbsp;
+        EntityManager
+    </th><td width="20%" align="right">&nbsp;<a accesskey="n" href="jpa_overview_em_lifeexamples.html">Next</a></td></tr></table><hr></div><div class="section" title="2.&nbsp; Entity Lifecycle Management"><div class="titlepage"><div><div><h2 class="title" style="clear: both" id="jpa_overview_em_lifecycle">2.&nbsp;
+            Entity Lifecycle Management
+        </h2></div></div></div>
+        
+        <a class="indexterm" name="d5e2364"></a>
+        <p>
+<code class="classname">EntityManager</code>s perform several actions that affect the
+lifecycle state of entity instances.
+        </p>
+<pre class="programlisting">
+public void persist(Object entity);
+</pre>
+        <p>
+        <a class="indexterm" name="d5e2371"></a>
+        <a class="indexterm" name="d5e2374"></a>
+        <a class="indexterm" name="d5e2377"></a>
+Transitions new instances to managed. On the next flush or commit, the newly
+persisted instances will be inserted into the datastore.
+        </p>
+        <p>
+For a given entity <code class="literal">A</code>, the <code class="methodname">persist</code>
+method behaves as follows:
+        </p>
+        <div class="itemizedlist"><ul class="itemizedlist" type="disc"><li class="listitem">
+                <p>
+If <code class="literal">A</code> is a new entity, it becomes managed.
+                </p>
+            </li><li class="listitem">
+                <p>
+If <code class="literal">A</code> is an existing managed entity, it is ignored. However,
+the persist operation cascades as defined below.
+                </p>
+            </li><li class="listitem">
+                <p>
+If <code class="literal">A</code> is a removed entity, it becomes managed.
+                </p>
+            </li><li class="listitem">
+                <p>
+If <code class="literal">A</code> is a detached entity, an <code class="classname">
+IllegalArgumentException</code> is thrown.
+                </p>
+            </li><li class="listitem">
+                <p>
+The persist operation recurses on all relation fields of <code class="literal">A</code>
+whose <a class="link" href="jpa_overview_meta_field.html#jpa_overview_meta_cascade" title="2.9.1.&nbsp; Cascade Type">cascades</a> include
+<code class="literal">CascadeType.PERSIST</code>.
+                </p>
+            </li></ul></div>
+        <p>
+This action can only be used in the context of an active transaction.
+        </p>
+<pre class="programlisting">
+public void remove(Object entity);
+</pre>
+        <p>
+        <a class="indexterm" name="d5e2405"></a>
+        <a class="indexterm" name="d5e2408"></a>
+        <a class="indexterm" name="d5e2411"></a>
+Transitions managed instances to removed. The instances will be deleted from the
+datastore on the next flush or commit. Accessing a removed entity has undefined
+results.
+        </p>
+        <p>
+For a given entity <code class="literal">A</code>, the <code class="methodname">remove</code>
+method behaves as follows:
+        </p>
+        <div class="itemizedlist"><ul class="itemizedlist" type="disc"><li class="listitem">
+                <p>
+If <code class="literal">A</code> is a new entity, it is ignored. However, the remove
+operation cascades as defined below.
+                </p>
+            </li><li class="listitem">
+                <p>
+If <code class="literal">A</code> is an existing managed entity, it becomes removed.
+                </p>
+            </li><li class="listitem">
+                <p>
+If <code class="literal">A</code> is a removed entity, it is ignored.
+                </p>
+            </li><li class="listitem">
+                <p>
+If <code class="literal">A</code> is a detached entity, an <code class="classname">
+IllegalArgumentException</code> is thrown.
+                </p>
+            </li><li class="listitem">
+                <p>
+The remove operation recurses on all relation fields of <code class="literal">A</code>
+whose <a class="link" href="jpa_overview_meta_field.html#jpa_overview_meta_cascade" title="2.9.1.&nbsp; Cascade Type">cascades</a> include
+<code class="literal">CascadeType.REMOVE</code>.
+                </p>
+            </li></ul></div>
+        <p>
+This action can only be used in the context of an active transaction.
+        </p>
+<pre class="programlisting">
+public void refresh(Object entity);
+</pre>
+        <p>
+        <a class="indexterm" name="d5e2439"></a>
+        <a class="indexterm" name="d5e2442"></a>
+        <a class="indexterm" name="d5e2445"></a>
+        <a class="indexterm" name="d5e2448"></a>
+Use the <code class="methodname">refresh</code> action to make sure the persistent
+state of an instance is synchronized with the values in the datastore.
+<code class="methodname">refresh</code> is intended for long-running optimistic
+transactions in which there is a danger of seeing stale data.
+        </p>
+        <p>
+For a given entity <code class="literal">A</code>, the <code class="methodname">refresh</code>
+method behaves as follows:
+        </p>
+        <div class="itemizedlist"><ul class="itemizedlist" type="disc"><li class="listitem">
+                <p>
+If <code class="literal">A</code> is a new entity, it is ignored. However, the refresh
+operation cascades as defined below.
+                </p>
+            </li><li class="listitem">
+                <p>
+If <code class="literal">A</code> is an existing managed entity, its state is refreshed
+from the datastore.
+                </p>
+            </li><li class="listitem">
+                <p>
+If <code class="literal">A</code> is a removed entity, it is ignored.
+                </p>
+            </li><li class="listitem">
+                <p>
+If <code class="literal">A</code> is a detached entity, an <code class="classname">
+IllegalArgumentException</code> is thrown.
+                </p>
+            </li><li class="listitem">
+                <p>
+The refresh operation recurses on all relation fields of <code class="literal">A</code>
+whose <a class="link" href="jpa_overview_meta_field.html#jpa_overview_meta_cascade" title="2.9.1.&nbsp; Cascade Type">cascades</a> include
+<code class="literal">CascadeType.REFRESH</code>.
+                </p>
+            </li></ul></div>
+<pre class="programlisting">
+public Object merge(Object entity);
+</pre>
+        <p>
+        <a class="indexterm" name="d5e2477"></a>
+        <a class="indexterm" name="d5e2481"></a>
+        <a class="indexterm" name="d5e2484"></a>
+        <a class="indexterm" name="d5e2487"></a>
+        <a class="indexterm" name="d5e2489"></a>
+A common use case for an application running in a servlet or application server
+is to "detach" objects from all server resources, modify them, and then "attach"
+them again. For example, a servlet might store persistent data in a user session
+between a modification based on a series of web forms. Between each form
+request, the web container might decide to serialize the session, requiring that
+the stored persistent state be disassociated from any other resources.
+Similarly, a client/server application might transfer persistent objects to a
+client via serialization, allow the client to modify their state, and then have
+the client return the modified data in order to be saved. This is sometimes
+referred to as the <span class="emphasis"><em>data transfer object</em></span> or <span class="emphasis"><em>value
+object</em></span> pattern, and it allows fine-grained manipulation of data
+objects without incurring the overhead of multiple remote method invocations.
+        </p>
+        <p>
+JPA provides support for this pattern by automatically detaching
+entities when they are serialized or when a persistence context ends (see
+<a class="xref" href="jpa_overview_emfactory_perscontext.html" title="3.&nbsp; Persistence Context">Section&nbsp;3, &#8220;
+            Persistence Context
+        &#8221;</a> for an exploration of
+persistence contexts). The JPA <span class="emphasis"><em>merge</em></span> API
+re-attaches detached entities. This allows you to detach a persistent instance,
+modify the detached instance offline, and merge the instance back into an
+<code class="classname">EntityManager</code> (either the same one that detached the
+instance, or a new one). The changes will then be applied to the existing
+instance from the datastore.
+        </p>
+        <p>
+A detached entity maintains its persistent identity, but cannot load additional
+state from the datastore. Accessing any persistent field or property that was
+not loaded at the time of detachment has undefined results. Also, be sure not to
+alter the version or identity fields of detached instances if you plan on
+merging them later.
+        </p>
+        <p>
+The <code class="methodname">merge</code> method returns a managed copy of the given
+detached entity. Changes made to the persistent state of the detached entity are
+applied to this managed instance. Because merging involves changing persistent
+state, you can only merge within a transaction.
+        </p>
+        <p>
+If you attempt to merge an instance whose representation has changed in the
+datastore since detachment, the merge operation will throw an exception, or the
+transaction in which you perform the merge will fail on commit, just as if a
+normal optimistic conflict were detected.
+        </p>
+        <div class="note" title="Note" style="margin-left: 0.5in; margin-right: 0.5in;"><h3 class="title">Note</h3>
+            <p>
+OpenJPA offers enhancements to JPA detachment functionality,
+including additional options to control which fields are detached. See
+<a class="xref" href="ref_guide_remote.html#ref_guide_detach" title="1.&nbsp; Detach and Attach">Section&nbsp;1, &#8220;
+            Detach and Attach
+        &#8221;</a> in the Reference Guide for details.
+            </p>
+        </div>
+        <p>
+For a given entity <code class="literal">A</code>, the <code class="methodname">merge</code>
+method behaves as follows:
+        </p>
+        <div class="itemizedlist"><ul class="itemizedlist" type="disc"><li class="listitem">
+                <p>
+If <code class="literal">A</code> is a detached entity, its state is copied into existing
+managed instance <code class="literal">A'</code> of the same entity identity, or a new
+managed copy of <code class="literal">A</code> is created.
+                </p>
+            </li><li class="listitem">
+                <p>
+If <code class="literal">A</code> is a new entity, a new managed entity <code class="literal">A'
+</code> is created and the state of <code class="literal">A</code> is copied into
+<code class="literal">A'</code>.
+                </p>
+            </li><li class="listitem">
+                <p>
+If <code class="literal">A</code> is an existing managed entity, it is ignored. However,
+the merge operation still cascades as defined below.
+                </p>
+            </li><li class="listitem">
+                <p>
+If <code class="literal">A</code> is a removed entity, an <code class="classname">
+IllegalArgumentException</code> is thrown.
+                </p>
+            </li><li class="listitem">
+                <p>
+The merge operation recurses on all relation fields of <code class="literal">A</code>
+whose <a class="link" href="jpa_overview_meta_field.html#jpa_overview_meta_cascade" title="2.9.1.&nbsp; Cascade Type">cascades</a> include
+<code class="literal">CascadeType.MERGE</code>.
+                </p>
+            </li></ul></div>
+        <p>
+The following diagram illustrates the lifecycle of an entity with respect to the
+APIs presented in this section.
+        </p>
+        <div class="mediaobject"><table border="0" summary="manufactured viewport for HTML img" cellspacing="0" cellpadding="0" width="297"><tr><td><img src="img/jpa-state-transitions.png"></td></tr></table></div>
+    </div><div class="navfooter"><hr><table width="100%" summary="Navigation footer"><tr><td width="40%" align="left"><a accesskey="p" href="jpa_overview_em.html">Prev</a>&nbsp;</td><td width="20%" align="center"><a accesskey="u" href="jpa_overview_em.html">Up</a></td><td width="40%" align="right">&nbsp;<a accesskey="n" href="jpa_overview_em_lifeexamples.html">Next</a></td></tr><tr><td width="40%" align="left" valign="top">Chapter&nbsp;8.&nbsp;
+        EntityManager
+    &nbsp;</td><td width="20%" align="center"><a accesskey="h" href="manual.html">Home</a></td><td width="40%" align="right" valign="top">&nbsp;3.&nbsp;
+            Lifecycle Examples
+        </td></tr></table></div></body></html>
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+<html><head>
+      <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=ISO-8859-1">
+   <title>3.&nbsp; Lifecycle Examples</title><base href="display"><link rel="stylesheet" type="text/css" href="css/docbook.css"><meta name="generator" content="DocBook XSL-NS Stylesheets V1.76.1"><link rel="home" href="manual.html" title="Apache OpenJPA 2.3 User's Guide"><link rel="up" href="jpa_overview_em.html" title="Chapter&nbsp;8.&nbsp; EntityManager"><link rel="prev" href="jpa_overview_em_lifecycle.html" title="2.&nbsp; Entity Lifecycle Management"><link rel="next" href="jpa_overview_em_identity.html" title="4.&nbsp; Entity Identity Management"></head><body bgcolor="white" text="black" link="#0000FF" vlink="#840084" alink="#0000FF"><div class="navheader"><table width="100%" summary="Navigation header"><tr><th colspan="3" align="center">3.&nbsp;
+            Lifecycle Examples
+        </th></tr><tr><td width="20%" align="left"><a accesskey="p" href="jpa_overview_em_lifecycle.html">Prev</a>&nbsp;</td><th width="60%" align="center">Chapter&nbsp;8.&nbsp;
+        EntityManager
+    </th><td width="20%" align="right">&nbsp;<a accesskey="n" href="jpa_overview_em_identity.html">Next</a></td></tr></table><hr></div><div class="section" title="3.&nbsp; Lifecycle Examples"><div class="titlepage"><div><div><h2 class="title" style="clear: both" id="jpa_overview_em_lifeexamples">3.&nbsp;
+            Lifecycle Examples
+        </h2></div></div></div>
+        
+        <p>
+The examples below demonstrate how to use the lifecycle methods presented in the
+previous section. The examples are appropriate for out-of-container use. Within
+a container, <code class="classname"> EntityManager</code>s are usually injected, and
+transactions are usually managed. You would therefore omit the <code class="methodname">
+createEntityManager</code> and <code class="methodname">close</code> calls, as
+well as all transaction demarcation code.
+        </p>
+        <div class="example"><a name="jpa_overview_em_lifecycle_persist"></a><p class="title"><b>Example&nbsp;8.1.&nbsp;
+                Persisting Objects
+            </b></p><div class="example-contents">
+            
+            <a class="indexterm" name="d5e2543"></a>
+<pre class="programlisting">
+// create some objects
+Magazine mag = new Magazine("1B78-YU9L", "JavaWorld");
+
+Company pub = new Company("Weston House");
+pub.setRevenue(1750000D);
+mag.setPublisher(pub);
+pub.addMagazine(mag);
+
+Article art = new Article("JPA Rules!", "Transparent Object Persistence");
+art.addAuthor(new Author("Fred", "Hoyle"));
+mag.addArticle(art);
+
+// persist
+EntityManager em = emf.createEntityManager();
+em.getTransaction().begin();
+em.persist(mag);
+em.persist(pub);
+em.persist(art);
+em.getTransaction().commit();
+
+// or we could continue using the EntityManager...
+em.close();
+</pre>
+        </div></div><br class="example-break">
+        <div class="example"><a name="jpa_overview_em_lifecycle_update"></a><p class="title"><b>Example&nbsp;8.2.&nbsp;
+                Updating Objects
+            </b></p><div class="example-contents">
+            
+            <a class="indexterm" name="d5e2550"></a>
+<pre class="programlisting">
+Magazine.MagazineId mi = new Magazine.MagazineId();
+mi.isbn = "1B78-YU9L";
+mi.title = "JavaWorld";
+
+// updates should always be made within transactions; note that
+// there is no code explicitly linking the magazine or company
+// with the transaction; JPA automatically tracks all changes
+EntityManager em = emf.createEntityManager();
+em.getTransaction().begin();
+Magazine mag = em.find(Magazine.class, mi);
+mag.setPrice(5.99);
+Company pub = mag.getPublisher();
+pub.setRevenue(1750000D);
+em.getTransaction().commit();
+
+// or we could continue using the EntityManager...
+em.close();
+</pre>
+        </div></div><br class="example-break">
+        <div class="example"><a name="jpa_overview_em_lifecycle_delete"></a><p class="title"><b>Example&nbsp;8.3.&nbsp;
+                Removing Objects
+            </b></p><div class="example-contents">
+            
+            <a class="indexterm" name="d5e2557"></a>
+<pre class="programlisting">
+// assume we have an object id for the company whose subscriptions
+// we want to delete
+Object oid = ...;
+
+// deletes should always be made within transactions
+EntityManager em = emf.createEntityManager();
+em.getTransaction().begin();
+Company pub = (Company) em.find(Company.class, oid);
+for (Subscription sub : pub.getSubscriptions())
+    em.remove(sub);
+pub.getSubscriptions().clear();
+em.getTransaction().commit();
+
+// or we could continue using the EntityManager...
+em.close();
+</pre>
+        </div></div><br class="example-break">
+        <div class="example"><a name="jpa_overview_em_detachex"></a><p class="title"><b>Example&nbsp;8.4.&nbsp;
+                Detaching and Merging
+            </b></p><div class="example-contents">
+            
+            <p>
+This example demonstrates a common client/server scenario. The client requests
+objects and makes changes to them, while the server handles the object lookups
+and transactions.
+            </p>
+<pre class="programlisting">
+// CLIENT:
+// requests an object with a given oid
+Record detached = (Record) getFromServer(oid);
+
+...
+
+// SERVER:
+// send object to client; object detaches on EM close
+Object oid = processClientRequest();
+EntityManager em = emf.createEntityManager();
+Record record = em.find(Record.class, oid);
+em.close();
+sendToClient(record);
+
+...
+
+// CLIENT:
+// makes some modifications and sends back to server
+detached.setSomeField("bar");
+sendToServer(detached);
+
+...
+
+// SERVER:
+// merges the instance and commit the changes
+Record modified = (Record) processClientRequest();
+EntityManager em = emf.createEntityManager();
+em.getTransaction().begin();
+Record merged = (Record) em.merge(modified);
+merged.setLastModified(System.currentTimeMillis());
+merged.setModifier(getClientIdentityCode());
+em.getTransaction().commit();
+em.close();
+</pre>
+        </div></div><br class="example-break">
+    </div><div class="navfooter"><hr><table width="100%" summary="Navigation footer"><tr><td width="40%" align="left"><a accesskey="p" href="jpa_overview_em_lifecycle.html">Prev</a>&nbsp;</td><td width="20%" align="center"><a accesskey="u" href="jpa_overview_em.html">Up</a></td><td width="40%" align="right">&nbsp;<a accesskey="n" href="jpa_overview_em_identity.html">Next</a></td></tr><tr><td width="40%" align="left" valign="top">2.&nbsp;
+            Entity Lifecycle Management
+        &nbsp;</td><td width="20%" align="center"><a accesskey="h" href="manual.html">Home</a></td><td width="40%" align="right" valign="top">&nbsp;4.&nbsp;
+            Entity Identity Management
+        </td></tr></table></div></body></html>
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+<html><head>
+      <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=ISO-8859-1">
+   <title>7.&nbsp; Entity Locking</title><base href="display"><link rel="stylesheet" type="text/css" href="css/docbook.css"><meta name="generator" content="DocBook XSL-NS Stylesheets V1.76.1"><link rel="home" href="manual.html" title="Apache OpenJPA 2.3 User's Guide"><link rel="up" href="jpa_overview_em.html" title="Chapter&nbsp;8.&nbsp; EntityManager"><link rel="prev" href="jpa_overview_em_query.html" title="6.&nbsp; Query Factory"><link rel="next" href="jpa_overview_em_properties.html" title="8.&nbsp; Retrieving Properties Information"></head><body bgcolor="white" text="black" link="#0000FF" vlink="#840084" alink="#0000FF"><div class="navheader"><table width="100%" summary="Navigation header"><tr><th colspan="3" align="center">7.&nbsp;
+            Entity Locking
+        </th></tr><tr><td width="20%" align="left"><a accesskey="p" href="jpa_overview_em_query.html">Prev</a>&nbsp;</td><th width="60%" align="center">Chapter&nbsp;8.&nbsp;
+        EntityManager
+    </th><td width="20%" align="right">&nbsp;<a accesskey="n" href="jpa_overview_em_properties.html">Next</a></td></tr></table><hr></div><div class="section" title="7.&nbsp; Entity Locking"><div class="titlepage"><div><div><h2 class="title" style="clear: both" id="jpa_overview_em_locking">7.&nbsp;
+            Entity Locking
+        </h2></div></div></div>
+        
+        <a class="indexterm" name="d5e2694"></a>
+        <p>
+In the area of concurrency control, the JPA specification supports
+optimistic and pessimistic locking.
+        </p>
+<pre class="programlisting">
+public void lock(Object entity, LockModeType mode);
+</pre>
+        <p>
+        <a class="indexterm" name="d5e2700"></a>
+        <a class="indexterm" name="d5e2703"></a>
+This method locks the given entity using the named mode. The
+<a class="ulink" href="http://download.oracle.com/javaee/6/api/javax/persistence/LockModeType.html" target="_top">
+<code class="classname">javax.persistence.LockModeType</code></a> enum defines eight
+modes:
+        </p>
+        <div class="itemizedlist"><ul class="itemizedlist" type="disc"><li class="listitem">
+                <p>
+<code class="literal">OPTIMISTIC</code>: Optimistic locking.
+                </p>
+            </li><li class="listitem">
+                <p>
+<code class="literal">OPTIMISTIC_FORCE_INCREMENT</code>: Optimistic locking.
+When a transaction is committed, the entity's version column
+will be incremented even if the entity's state did not change in the transaction.
+                </p>
+            </li><li class="listitem">
+                <p>
+<code class="literal">PESSIMISTIC_READ</code>: Pessimistic locking. Other transactions
+may concurrently read the entity, but cannot concurrently update it.
+                </p>
+            </li><li class="listitem">
+                <p>
+<code class="literal">PESSIMISTIC_WRITE</code>: Pessimistic locking. Other transactions
+cannot concurrently read or write the entity.
+                </p>
+            </li><li class="listitem">
+                <p>
+<code class="literal">PESSIMISTIC_FORCE_INCREMENT</code>: Pessimistic locking. Other transactions
+cannot concurrently read or write the entity. 
+When a transaction is committed, the entity's version column
+will be incremented even if the entity's state did not change in the transaction.
+                </p>
+            </li><li class="listitem">
+                <p>
+<code class="literal">READ</code>: A synonym for <code class="literal">OPTIMISTIC</code>.
+                </p>
+            </li><li class="listitem">
+                <p>
+<code class="literal">WRITE</code>: A synonym for <code class="literal">OPTIMISTIC_FORCE_INCREMENT</code>.
+                </p>
+            </li><li class="listitem">
+                <p>
+<code class="literal">NONE</code>: No locking is performed.
+                </p>
+            </li></ul></div>
+        <p>
+Entities can also be locked at the time when entity state gets loaded from the datastore.
+This is achieved by supplying a lock mode to the respective versions of
+<code class="methodname">find</code> and <code class="methodname">refresh</code> methods.
+If an entity state is to be loaded by a query, a lock mode can be passed to the
+<code class="methodname">Query.setLockMode</code> and <code class="methodname">TypedQuery.setLockMode</code>
+methods.
+        </p>
+<pre class="programlisting">
+public LockModeType getLockMode(Object entity);
+</pre>
+        <p>
+Returns the lock mode currently held by the given entity.
+        </p>
+        <div class="note" title="Note" style="margin-left: 0.5in; margin-right: 0.5in;"><h3 class="title">Note</h3>
+        <div class="itemizedlist"><ul class="itemizedlist" type="disc"><li class="listitem">
+                <p>
+OpenJPA differentiates between <code class="literal">PESSIMISTIC_READ</code> and
+<code class="literal">PESSIMISTIC_WRITE</code> lock modes only with DB2 databases.
+While running with other databases, there is no distinction between these
+two modes because
+<code class="literal">PESSIMISTIC_READ</code> lock mode
+is upgraded to <code class="literal">PESSIMISTIC_WRITE</code>.
+                </p>
+            </li><li class="listitem">
+                <p>
+OpenJPA has additional APIs for controlling entity locking. See
+<a class="xref" href="ref_guide_locking.html" title="3.&nbsp; Object Locking">Section&nbsp;3, &#8220;
+            Object Locking
+        &#8221;</a> in the Reference Guide for details.
+                </p>
+            </li></ul></div>
+        </div>
+    </div><div class="navfooter"><hr><table width="100%" summary="Navigation footer"><tr><td width="40%" align="left"><a accesskey="p" href="jpa_overview_em_query.html">Prev</a>&nbsp;</td><td width="20%" align="center"><a accesskey="u" href="jpa_overview_em.html">Up</a></td><td width="40%" align="right">&nbsp;<a accesskey="n" href="jpa_overview_em_properties.html">Next</a></td></tr><tr><td width="40%" align="left" valign="top">6.&nbsp;
+            Query Factory
+        &nbsp;</td><td width="20%" align="center"><a accesskey="h" href="manual.html">Home</a></td><td width="40%" align="right" valign="top">&nbsp;8.&nbsp;
+			Retrieving Properties Information
+		</td></tr></table></div></body></html>
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+<html><head>
+      <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=ISO-8859-1">
+   <title>8.&nbsp; Retrieving Properties Information</title><base href="display"><link rel="stylesheet" type="text/css" href="css/docbook.css"><meta name="generator" content="DocBook XSL-NS Stylesheets V1.76.1"><link rel="home" href="manual.html" title="Apache OpenJPA 2.3 User's Guide"><link rel="up" href="jpa_overview_em.html" title="Chapter&nbsp;8.&nbsp; EntityManager"><link rel="prev" href="jpa_overview_em_locking.html" title="7.&nbsp; Entity Locking"><link rel="next" href="jpa_overview_em_closing.html" title="9.&nbsp; Closing"></head><body bgcolor="white" text="black" link="#0000FF" vlink="#840084" alink="#0000FF"><div class="navheader"><table width="100%" summary="Navigation header"><tr><th colspan="3" align="center">8.&nbsp;
+			Retrieving Properties Information
+		</th></tr><tr><td width="20%" align="left"><a accesskey="p" href="jpa_overview_em_locking.html">Prev</a>&nbsp;</td><th width="60%" align="center">Chapter&nbsp;8.&nbsp;
+        EntityManager
+    </th><td width="20%" align="right">&nbsp;<a accesskey="n" href="jpa_overview_em_closing.html">Next</a></td></tr></table><hr></div><div class="section" title="8.&nbsp; Retrieving Properties Information"><div class="titlepage"><div><div><h2 class="title" style="clear: both" id="jpa_overview_em_properties">8.&nbsp;
+			Retrieving Properties Information
+		</h2></div></div></div>
+		
+		<a class="indexterm" name="d5e2755"></a>
+        
+
+<p>
+There are two sets of properties that may be specified: those that
+are specific to OpenJPA and those that have been defined by the JPA
+specification. In some cases, two properties may be equivalent, but
+have different keys. For example, <span class="emphasis"><em>openjpa.LockTimeout
+</em></span> and <span class="emphasis"><em>javax.persistence.lock.timeout</em></span>
+are two different keys for the same property.
+</p>
+<p>
+There are two methods that can be used to retrieve information related to
+properties:
+</p><pre class="programlisting">
+public Map&lt;String,Object&gt; getProperties();
+public Set&lt;String&gt; getSupportedProperties();
+</pre><p>
+	</p><div class="itemizedlist"><ul class="itemizedlist" type="disc"><li class="listitem">
+			<p>
+			<code class="methodname">getProperties</code> - Provides a list of current 
+			properties. If a property has more than one key, the key
+			that will be returned is the one that was used when the
+			property was set. If the property was not explicitly
+			set, the key defined by the JPA specification will be returned 
+			with the default value.
+			</p>
+		</li><li class="listitem">
+			<p>
+			<code class="methodname">getSupportedProperties</code> - Returns a set of
+			supported property keys. This includes keys defined by the JPA
+			specification as well as keys specific to OpenJPA.
+			If a property
+			has more than one key, all possible keys will be returned.
+			</p>
+		</li></ul></div><p>
+</p>
+<div class="note" title="Note" style="margin-left: 0.5in; margin-right: 0.5in;"><h3 class="title">Note</h3>
+	<p>
+		The <code class="methodname">getSupportedProperties</code> method is an OpenJPA
+		extension to the JPA specification.
+	</p>
+</div>
+
+    </div><div class="navfooter"><hr><table width="100%" summary="Navigation footer"><tr><td width="40%" align="left"><a accesskey="p" href="jpa_overview_em_locking.html">Prev</a>&nbsp;</td><td width="20%" align="center"><a accesskey="u" href="jpa_overview_em.html">Up</a></td><td width="40%" align="right">&nbsp;<a accesskey="n" href="jpa_overview_em_closing.html">Next</a></td></tr><tr><td width="40%" align="left" valign="top">7.&nbsp;
+            Entity Locking
+        &nbsp;</td><td width="20%" align="center"><a accesskey="h" href="manual.html">Home</a></td><td width="40%" align="right" valign="top">&nbsp;9.&nbsp;
+            Closing
+        </td></tr></table></div></body></html>
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+<html><head>
+      <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=ISO-8859-1">
+   <title>6.&nbsp; Query Factory</title><base href="display"><link rel="stylesheet" type="text/css" href="css/docbook.css"><meta name="generator" content="DocBook XSL-NS Stylesheets V1.76.1"><link rel="home" href="manual.html" title="Apache OpenJPA 2.3 User's Guide"><link rel="up" href="jpa_overview_em.html" title="Chapter&nbsp;8.&nbsp; EntityManager"><link rel="prev" href="jpa_overview_em_cache.html" title="5.&nbsp; Cache Management"><link rel="next" href="jpa_overview_em_locking.html" title="7.&nbsp; Entity Locking"></head><body bgcolor="white" text="black" link="#0000FF" vlink="#840084" alink="#0000FF"><div class="navheader"><table width="100%" summary="Navigation header"><tr><th colspan="3" align="center">6.&nbsp;
+            Query Factory
+        </th></tr><tr><td width="20%" align="left"><a accesskey="p" href="jpa_overview_em_cache.html">Prev</a>&nbsp;</td><th width="60%" align="center">Chapter&nbsp;8.&nbsp;
+        EntityManager
+    </th><td width="20%" align="right">&nbsp;<a accesskey="n" href="jpa_overview_em_locking.html">Next</a></td></tr></table><hr></div><div class="section" title="6.&nbsp; Query Factory"><div class="titlepage"><div><div><h2 class="title" style="clear: both" id="jpa_overview_em_query">6.&nbsp;
+            Query Factory
+        </h2></div></div></div>
+        
+        <a class="indexterm" name="d5e2672"></a>
+        <a class="indexterm" name="d5e2676"></a>
+<pre class="programlisting">
+public Query createQuery(String query);
+</pre>
+        <p>
+<code class="classname">Query</code> objects are used to find entities matching certain
+criteria. The <code class="methodname">createQuery</code> method creates a query using
+the given Java Persistence Query Language (JPQL) string. See
+<a class="xref" href="jpa_overview_query.html" title="Chapter&nbsp;10.&nbsp; JPA Query">Chapter&nbsp;10, <i>
+        JPA Query
+    </i></a> for details.
+        </p>
+<pre class="programlisting">
+public Query createNamedQuery(String name);
+</pre>
+        <p>
+This method retrieves a query defined in metadata by name. The returned
+<code class="classname">Query</code> instance is initialized with the information
+declared in metadata. For more information on named queries, read
+<a class="xref" href="jpa_overview_query.html#jpa_overview_query_named" title="1.11.&nbsp; Named Queries">Section&nbsp;1.11, &#8220;
+                Named Queries
+            &#8221;</a>.
+        </p>
+<pre class="programlisting">
+public Query createNativeQuery(String sql);
+public Query createNativeQuery(String sql, Class resultCls);
+public Query createNativeQuery(String sql, String resultMapping);
+</pre>
+        <p>
+<span class="emphasis"><em>Native</em></span> queries are queries in the datastore's native
+language. For relational databases, this is the Structured Query Language (SQL).
+<a class="xref" href="jpa_overview_sqlquery.html" title="Chapter&nbsp;12.&nbsp; SQL Queries">Chapter&nbsp;12, <i>
+        SQL Queries
+    </i></a> elaborates on JPA's
+native query support.
+        </p>
+    </div><div class="navfooter"><hr><table width="100%" summary="Navigation footer"><tr><td width="40%" align="left"><a accesskey="p" href="jpa_overview_em_cache.html">Prev</a>&nbsp;</td><td width="20%" align="center"><a accesskey="u" href="jpa_overview_em.html">Up</a></td><td width="40%" align="right">&nbsp;<a accesskey="n" href="jpa_overview_em_locking.html">Next</a></td></tr><tr><td width="40%" align="left" valign="top">5.&nbsp;
+            Cache Management
+        &nbsp;</td><td width="20%" align="center"><a accesskey="h" href="manual.html">Home</a></td><td width="40%" align="right" valign="top">&nbsp;7.&nbsp;
+            Entity Locking
+        </td></tr></table></div></body></html>
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+<html><head>
+      <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=ISO-8859-1">
+   <title>4.&nbsp; Retrieving Properties Information</title><base href="display"><link rel="stylesheet" type="text/css" href="css/docbook.css"><meta name="generator" content="DocBook XSL-NS Stylesheets V1.76.1"><link rel="home" href="manual.html" title="Apache OpenJPA 2.3 User's Guide"><link rel="up" href="jpa_overview_emfactory.html" title="Chapter&nbsp;7.&nbsp; EntityManagerFactory"><link rel="prev" href="jpa_overview_emfactory_perscontext.html" title="3.&nbsp; Persistence Context"><link rel="next" href="jpa_overview_emfactory_close.html" title="5.&nbsp; Closing the EntityManagerFactory"></head><body bgcolor="white" text="black" link="#0000FF" vlink="#840084" alink="#0000FF"><div class="navheader"><table width="100%" summary="Navigation header"><tr><th colspan="3" align="center">4.&nbsp;
+			Retrieving Properties Information
+		</th></tr><tr><td width="20%" align="left"><a accesskey="p" href="jpa_overview_emfactory_perscontext.html">Prev</a>&nbsp;</td><th width="60%" align="center">Chapter&nbsp;7.&nbsp;
+        EntityManagerFactory
+    </th><td width="20%" align="right">&nbsp;<a accesskey="n" href="jpa_overview_emfactory_close.html">Next</a></td></tr></table><hr></div><div class="section" title="4.&nbsp; Retrieving Properties Information"><div class="titlepage"><div><div><h2 class="title" style="clear: both" id="jpa_overview_emf_properties">4.&nbsp;
+			Retrieving Properties Information
+		</h2></div></div></div>
+		
+		<a class="indexterm" name="d5e2251"></a>
+        
+
+<p>
+There are two sets of properties that may be specified: those that
+are specific to OpenJPA and those that have been defined by the JPA
+specification. In some cases, two properties may be equivalent, but
+have different keys. For example, <span class="emphasis"><em>openjpa.LockTimeout
+</em></span> and <span class="emphasis"><em>javax.persistence.lock.timeout</em></span>
+are two different keys for the same property.
+</p>
+<p>
+There are two methods that can be used to retrieve information related to
+properties:
+</p><pre class="programlisting">
+public Map&lt;String,Object&gt; getProperties();
+public Set&lt;String&gt; getSupportedProperties();
+</pre><p>
+	</p><div class="itemizedlist"><ul class="itemizedlist" type="disc"><li class="listitem">
+			<p>
+			<code class="methodname">getProperties</code> - Provides a list of current 
+			properties. If a property has more than one key, the key
+			that will be returned is the one that was used when the
+			property was set. If the property was not explicitly
+			set, the key defined by the JPA specification will be returned 
+			with the default value.
+			</p>
+		</li><li class="listitem">
+			<p>
+			<code class="methodname">getSupportedProperties</code> - Returns a set of
+			supported property keys. This includes keys defined by the JPA
+			specification as well as keys specific to OpenJPA.
+			If a property
+			has more than one key, all possible keys will be returned.
+			</p>
+		</li></ul></div><p>
+</p>
+<div class="note" title="Note" style="margin-left: 0.5in; margin-right: 0.5in;"><h3 class="title">Note</h3>
+	<p>
+		The <code class="methodname">getSupportedProperties</code> method is an OpenJPA
+		extension to the JPA specification.
+	</p>
+</div>
+
+    </div><div class="navfooter"><hr><table width="100%" summary="Navigation footer"><tr><td width="40%" align="left"><a accesskey="p" href="jpa_overview_emfactory_perscontext.html">Prev</a>&nbsp;</td><td width="20%" align="center"><a accesskey="u" href="jpa_overview_emfactory.html">Up</a></td><td width="40%" align="right">&nbsp;<a accesskey="n" href="jpa_overview_emfactory_close.html">Next</a></td></tr><tr><td width="40%" align="left" valign="top">3.&nbsp;
+            Persistence Context
+        &nbsp;</td><td width="20%" align="center"><a accesskey="h" href="manual.html">Home</a></td><td width="40%" align="right" valign="top">&nbsp;5.&nbsp;
+            Closing the EntityManagerFactory
+        </td></tr></table></div></body></html>
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+<html><head>
+      <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=ISO-8859-1">
+   <title>Chapter&nbsp;7.&nbsp; EntityManagerFactory</title><base href="display"><link rel="stylesheet" type="text/css" href="css/docbook.css"><meta name="generator" content="DocBook XSL-NS Stylesheets V1.76.1"><link rel="home" href="manual.html" title="Apache OpenJPA 2.3 User's Guide"><link rel="up" href="jpa_overview.html" title="Part&nbsp;2.&nbsp;Java Persistence API"><link rel="prev" href="jpa_overview_persistence_use.html" title="2.&nbsp; Non-EE Use"><link rel="next" href="jpa_overview_emfactory_em.html" title="2.&nbsp; Obtaining EntityManagers"></head><body bgcolor="white" text="black" link="#0000FF" vlink="#840084" alink="#0000FF"><div class="navheader"><table width="100%" summary="Navigation header"><tr><th colspan="3" align="center">Chapter&nbsp;7.&nbsp;
+        EntityManagerFactory
+    </th></tr><tr><td width="20%" align="left"><a accesskey="p" href="jpa_overview_persistence_use.html">Prev</a>&nbsp;</td><th width="60%" align="center">Part&nbsp;2.&nbsp;Java Persistence API</th><td width="20%" align="right">&nbsp;<a accesskey="n" href="jpa_overview_emfactory_em.html">Next</a></td></tr></table><hr></div><div class="chapter" title="Chapter&nbsp;7.&nbsp; EntityManagerFactory" id="jpa_overview_emfactory"><div class="titlepage"><div><div><h2 class="title">Chapter&nbsp;7.&nbsp;
+        EntityManagerFactory
+    </h2></div></div></div><div class="toc"><p><b>Table of Contents</b></p><dl><dt><span class="section"><a href="jpa_overview_emfactory.html#jpa_overview_emfactory_obtain">1. 
+            Obtaining an EntityManagerFactory
+        </a></span></dt><dt><span class="section"><a href="jpa_overview_emfactory_em.html">2. 
+            Obtaining EntityManagers
+        </a></span></dt><dt><span class="section"><a href="jpa_overview_emfactory_perscontext.html">3. 
+            Persistence Context
+        </a></span></dt><dd><dl><dt><span class="section"><a href="jpa_overview_emfactory_perscontext.html#jpa_overview_emfactory_perscontext_trans">3.1. 
+                Transaction Persistence Context
+            </a></span></dt><dt><span class="section"><a href="jpa_overview_emfactory_perscontext.html#jpa_overview_emfactory_perscontext_extend">3.2. 
+                Extended Persistence Context
+            </a></span></dt></dl></dd><dt><span class="section"><a href="jpa_overview_emf_properties.html">4. 
+			Retrieving Properties Information
+		</a></span></dt><dt><span class="section"><a href="jpa_overview_emfactory_close.html">5. 
+            Closing the EntityManagerFactory
+        </a></span></dt><dt><span class="section"><a href="jpa_overview_emfactory_puutil.html">6. 
+            PersistenceUnitUtil
+        </a></span></dt></dl></div>
+    
+    <a class="indexterm" name="d5e2106"></a>
+    <div class="mediaobject"><table border="0" summary="manufactured viewport for HTML img" cellspacing="0" cellpadding="0" width="279"><tr><td><img src="img/entitymanagerfactory.png"></td></tr></table></div>
+    <p>
+The <code class="classname">EntityManagerFactory</code> creates <code class="classname">
+EntityManager</code> instances for application use.
+    </p>
+    <div class="note" title="Note" style="margin-left: 0.5in; margin-right: 0.5in;"><h3 class="title">Note</h3>
+        <p>
+OpenJPA extends the standard <code class="classname">EntityManagerFactory</code>
+interface with the
+<a class="ulink" href="../javadoc/org/apache/openjpa/persistence/OpenJPAEntityManagerFactory.html" target="_top">
+<code class="classname">OpenJPAEntityManagerFactory</code></a> to provide additional
+functionality.
+        </p>
+    </div>
+    <div class="section" title="1.&nbsp; Obtaining an EntityManagerFactory"><div class="titlepage"><div><div><h2 class="title" style="clear: both" id="jpa_overview_emfactory_obtain">1.&nbsp;
+            Obtaining an EntityManagerFactory
+        </h2></div></div></div>
+        
+        <a class="indexterm" name="d5e2121"></a>
+        <a class="indexterm" name="d5e2124"></a>
+        <a class="indexterm" name="d5e2127"></a>
+        <p>
+Within a container, you will typically use <span class="emphasis"><em>injection</em></span> to
+access an <code class="classname">EntityManagerFactory</code>. There are, however,
+alternative mechanisms for <code class="classname">EntityManagerFactory</code>
+construction.
+        </p>
+        <p>
+Some vendors may supply public constructors for their <code class="classname">
+EntityManagerFactory</code> implementations, but we recommend using the
+Java Connector Architecture (JCA) in a managed environment, or the <code class="classname">
+Persistence</code> class' <code class="methodname">createEntityManagerFactory
+</code> methods in an unmanaged environment, as described in
+<a class="xref" href="jpa_overview_persistence.html" title="Chapter&nbsp;6.&nbsp; Persistence">Chapter&nbsp;6, <i>
+        Persistence
+    </i></a>. These strategies allow
+vendors to pool factories, cutting down on resource utilization.
+        </p>
+        <p>
+        <a class="indexterm" name="d5e2139"></a>
+JPA allows you to create and configure an <code class="classname">
+EntityManagerFactory</code>, then store it in a Java Naming and Directory 
+Interface (JNDI) tree for later retrieval and use.
+        </p>
+    </div>
+    
+    
+    
+    
+
+
+    
+
+</div><div class="navfooter"><hr><table width="100%" summary="Navigation footer"><tr><td width="40%" align="left"><a accesskey="p" href="jpa_overview_persistence_use.html">Prev</a>&nbsp;</td><td width="20%" align="center"><a accesskey="u" href="jpa_overview.html">Up</a></td><td width="40%" align="right">&nbsp;<a accesskey="n" href="jpa_overview_emfactory_em.html">Next</a></td></tr><tr><td width="40%" align="left" valign="top">2.&nbsp;
+            Non-EE Use
+        &nbsp;</td><td width="20%" align="center"><a accesskey="h" href="manual.html">Home</a></td><td width="40%" align="right" valign="top">&nbsp;2.&nbsp;
+            Obtaining EntityManagers
+        </td></tr></table></div></body></html>
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+++ websites/production/openjpa/content/builds/2.3.0/apache-openjpa/docs/jpa_overview_emfactory_close.html Wed May 14 22:22:23 2014
@@ -0,0 +1,44 @@
+<html><head>
+      <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=ISO-8859-1">
+   <title>5.&nbsp; Closing the EntityManagerFactory</title><base href="display"><link rel="stylesheet" type="text/css" href="css/docbook.css"><meta name="generator" content="DocBook XSL-NS Stylesheets V1.76.1"><link rel="home" href="manual.html" title="Apache OpenJPA 2.3 User's Guide"><link rel="up" href="jpa_overview_emfactory.html" title="Chapter&nbsp;7.&nbsp; EntityManagerFactory"><link rel="prev" href="jpa_overview_emf_properties.html" title="4.&nbsp; Retrieving Properties Information"><link rel="next" href="jpa_overview_emfactory_puutil.html" title="6.&nbsp; PersistenceUnitUtil"></head><body bgcolor="white" text="black" link="#0000FF" vlink="#840084" alink="#0000FF"><div class="navheader"><table width="100%" summary="Navigation header"><tr><th colspan="3" align="center">5.&nbsp;
+            Closing the EntityManagerFactory
+        </th></tr><tr><td width="20%" align="left"><a accesskey="p" href="jpa_overview_emf_properties.html">Prev</a>&nbsp;</td><th width="60%" align="center">Chapter&nbsp;7.&nbsp;
+        EntityManagerFactory
+    </th><td width="20%" align="right">&nbsp;<a accesskey="n" href="jpa_overview_emfactory_puutil.html">Next</a></td></tr></table><hr></div><div class="section" title="5.&nbsp; Closing the EntityManagerFactory"><div class="titlepage"><div><div><h2 class="title" style="clear: both" id="jpa_overview_emfactory_close">5.&nbsp;
+            Closing the EntityManagerFactory
+        </h2></div></div></div>
+        
+        <a class="indexterm" name="d5e2271"></a>
+<pre class="programlisting">
+public boolean isOpen();
+public void close();
+</pre>
+        <p>
+<code class="classname">EntityManagerFactory</code> instances are heavyweight objects.
+Each factory might maintain a metadata cache, object state cache, <code class="classname">
+EntityManager</code> pool, connection pool, and more. If your application
+no longer needs an <code class="classname">EntityManagerFactory</code>, you should
+close it to free these resources. When an <code class="classname">EntityManagerFactory
+</code> closes, all <code class="classname">EntityManager</code>s from that
+factory, and by extension all entities managed by those <code class="classname">
+EntityManager</code>s, become invalid. Attempting to close an <code class="classname">
+EntityManagerFactory</code> while one or more of its <code class="classname">
+EntityManager</code>s has an active transaction may result in an
+<code class="classname">IllegalStateException</code>.
+        </p>
+        <p>
+Closing an <code class="classname">EntityManagerFactory</code> should not be taken
+lightly. It is much better to keep a factory open for a long period of time than
+to repeatedly create and close new factories. Thus, most applications will never
+close the factory, or only close it when the application is exiting. Only
+applications that require multiple factories with different configurations have
+an obvious reason to create and close multiple <code class="classname">EntityManagerFactory
+</code> instances. Once a factory is closed, all methods except
+<code class="methodname">isOpen</code> throw an <code class="classname">
+IllegalStateException</code>.
+        </p>
+    </div><div class="navfooter"><hr><table width="100%" summary="Navigation footer"><tr><td width="40%" align="left"><a accesskey="p" href="jpa_overview_emf_properties.html">Prev</a>&nbsp;</td><td width="20%" align="center"><a accesskey="u" href="jpa_overview_emfactory.html">Up</a></td><td width="40%" align="right">&nbsp;<a accesskey="n" href="jpa_overview_emfactory_puutil.html">Next</a></td></tr><tr><td width="40%" align="left" valign="top">4.&nbsp;
+			Retrieving Properties Information
+		&nbsp;</td><td width="20%" align="center"><a accesskey="h" href="manual.html">Home</a></td><td width="40%" align="right" valign="top">&nbsp;6.&nbsp;
+            PersistenceUnitUtil
+        </td></tr></table></div></body></html>
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+++ websites/production/openjpa/content/builds/2.3.0/apache-openjpa/docs/jpa_overview_emfactory_em.html Wed May 14 22:22:23 2014
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+<html><head>
+      <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=ISO-8859-1">
+   <title>2.&nbsp; Obtaining EntityManagers</title><base href="display"><link rel="stylesheet" type="text/css" href="css/docbook.css"><meta name="generator" content="DocBook XSL-NS Stylesheets V1.76.1"><link rel="home" href="manual.html" title="Apache OpenJPA 2.3 User's Guide"><link rel="up" href="jpa_overview_emfactory.html" title="Chapter&nbsp;7.&nbsp; EntityManagerFactory"><link rel="prev" href="jpa_overview_emfactory.html" title="Chapter&nbsp;7.&nbsp; EntityManagerFactory"><link rel="next" href="jpa_overview_emfactory_perscontext.html" title="3.&nbsp; Persistence Context"></head><body bgcolor="white" text="black" link="#0000FF" vlink="#840084" alink="#0000FF"><div class="navheader"><table width="100%" summary="Navigation header"><tr><th colspan="3" align="center">2.&nbsp;
+            Obtaining EntityManagers
+        </th></tr><tr><td width="20%" align="left"><a accesskey="p" href="jpa_overview_emfactory.html">Prev</a>&nbsp;</td><th width="60%" align="center">Chapter&nbsp;7.&nbsp;
+        EntityManagerFactory
+    </th><td width="20%" align="right">&nbsp;<a accesskey="n" href="jpa_overview_emfactory_perscontext.html">Next</a></td></tr></table><hr></div><div class="section" title="2.&nbsp; Obtaining EntityManagers"><div class="titlepage"><div><div><h2 class="title" style="clear: both" id="jpa_overview_emfactory_em">2.&nbsp;
+            Obtaining EntityManagers
+        </h2></div></div></div>
+        
+        <a class="indexterm" name="d5e2144"></a>
+        <a class="indexterm" name="d5e2148"></a>
+<pre class="programlisting">
+public EntityManager createEntityManager();
+public EntityManager createEntityManager(Map map);
+</pre>
+        <p>
+The two <code class="methodname">createEntityManager</code> methods above create a new
+<code class="classname">EntityManager</code> each time they are invoked. The optional
+<code class="classname">Map</code> is used to supply vendor-specific settings. If you
+have configured your implementation for JTA transactions and a JTA transaction
+is active, the returned <code class="classname">EntityManager</code> will be 
+synchronized with that transaction.
+        </p>
+        <div class="note" title="Note" style="margin-left: 0.5in; margin-right: 0.5in;"><h3 class="title">Note</h3>
+            <p>
+OpenJPA recognizes the following string keys in the map supplied to <code class="methodname">
+createEntityManager</code>:
+            </p>
+            <div class="itemizedlist"><ul class="itemizedlist" type="disc"><li class="listitem">
+                    <p>
+<code class="literal">openjpa.ConnectionUserName</code>
+                    </p>
+                </li><li class="listitem">
+                    <p>
+<code class="literal">openjpa.ConnectionPassword</code>
+                    </p>
+                </li><li class="listitem">
+                    <p>
+<code class="literal">openjpa.ConnectionRetainMode</code>
+                    </p>
+                </li><li class="listitem">
+                    <p>
+<code class="literal">openjpa.TransactionMode</code>
+                    </p>
+                </li><li class="listitem">
+                    <p>
+<code class="literal">openjpa.&lt;property&gt;</code>, where <span class="emphasis"><em>&lt;property&gt;
+</em></span> is any JavaBean property of the
+<a class="ulink" href="../javadoc/org/apache/openjpa/persistence/OpenJPAEntityManager.html" target="_top">
+<code class="classname">
+org.apache.openjpa.persistence.OpenJPAEntityManager</code></a>.
+                    </p>
+                </li></ul></div>
+            <p>
+The last option uses reflection to configure any property of OpenJPA's
+<code class="classname">EntityManager</code> implementation with the value supplied in
+your map. The first options correspond exactly to the same-named OpenJPA
+configuration keys described in <a class="xref" href="ref_guide_conf.html" title="Chapter&nbsp;2.&nbsp; Configuration">Chapter&nbsp;2, <i>
+        Configuration
+    </i></a> of the
+Reference Guide.
+            </p>
+        </div>
+    </div><div class="navfooter"><hr><table width="100%" summary="Navigation footer"><tr><td width="40%" align="left"><a accesskey="p" href="jpa_overview_emfactory.html">Prev</a>&nbsp;</td><td width="20%" align="center"><a accesskey="u" href="jpa_overview_emfactory.html">Up</a></td><td width="40%" align="right">&nbsp;<a accesskey="n" href="jpa_overview_emfactory_perscontext.html">Next</a></td></tr><tr><td width="40%" align="left" valign="top">Chapter&nbsp;7.&nbsp;
+        EntityManagerFactory
+    &nbsp;</td><td width="20%" align="center"><a accesskey="h" href="manual.html">Home</a></td><td width="40%" align="right" valign="top">&nbsp;3.&nbsp;
+            Persistence Context
+        </td></tr></table></div></body></html>
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@@ -0,0 +1,203 @@
+<html><head>
+      <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=ISO-8859-1">
+   <title>3.&nbsp; Persistence Context</title><base href="display"><link rel="stylesheet" type="text/css" href="css/docbook.css"><meta name="generator" content="DocBook XSL-NS Stylesheets V1.76.1"><link rel="home" href="manual.html" title="Apache OpenJPA 2.3 User's Guide"><link rel="up" href="jpa_overview_emfactory.html" title="Chapter&nbsp;7.&nbsp; EntityManagerFactory"><link rel="prev" href="jpa_overview_emfactory_em.html" title="2.&nbsp; Obtaining EntityManagers"><link rel="next" href="jpa_overview_emf_properties.html" title="4.&nbsp; Retrieving Properties Information"></head><body bgcolor="white" text="black" link="#0000FF" vlink="#840084" alink="#0000FF"><div class="navheader"><table width="100%" summary="Navigation header"><tr><th colspan="3" align="center">3.&nbsp;
+            Persistence Context
+        </th></tr><tr><td width="20%" align="left"><a accesskey="p" href="jpa_overview_emfactory_em.html">Prev</a>&nbsp;</td><th width="60%" align="center">Chapter&nbsp;7.&nbsp;
+        EntityManagerFactory
+    </th><td width="20%" align="right">&nbsp;<a accesskey="n" href="jpa_overview_emf_properties.html">Next</a></td></tr></table><hr></div><div class="section" title="3.&nbsp; Persistence Context"><div class="titlepage"><div><div><h2 class="title" style="clear: both" id="jpa_overview_emfactory_perscontext">3.&nbsp;
+            Persistence Context
+        </h2></div></div></div><div class="toc"><dl><dt><span class="section"><a href="jpa_overview_emfactory_perscontext.html#jpa_overview_emfactory_perscontext_trans">3.1. 
+                Transaction Persistence Context
+            </a></span></dt><dt><span class="section"><a href="jpa_overview_emfactory_perscontext.html#jpa_overview_emfactory_perscontext_extend">3.2. 
+                Extended Persistence Context
+            </a></span></dt></dl></div>
+        
+        <a class="indexterm" name="d5e2184"></a>
+        <a class="indexterm" name="d5e2186"></a>
+        <p>
+A persistence context is a set of entities such that for any persistent identity
+there is a unique entity instance. Within a persistence context, entities are
+<span class="emphasis"><em>managed</em></span>. The <code class="classname"> EntityManager</code> controls
+their lifecycle, and they can access datastore resources.
+        </p>
+        <p>
+When a persistence context ends, previously-managed entities become <span class="emphasis"><em>
+detached</em></span>. A detached entity is no longer under the control of the
+<code class="classname">EntityManager</code>, and no longer has access to datastore
+resources. We discuss detachment in detail in
+<a class="xref" href="jpa_overview_em_lifecycle.html" title="2.&nbsp; Entity Lifecycle Management">Section&nbsp;2, &#8220;
+            Entity Lifecycle Management
+        &#8221;</a>. For now, it is sufficient to
+know that detachment has two obvious consequences:
+        </p>
+        <div class="orderedlist"><ol class="orderedlist" type="1"><li class="listitem">
+                <p>
+The detached entity cannot load any additional persistent state.
+                </p>
+            </li><li class="listitem">
+                <p>
+The <code class="classname">EntityManager</code> will not return the detached entity
+from <code class="methodname">find</code>, nor will queries include the detached
+entity in their results. Instead, <code class="methodname">find</code> method
+invocations and query executions that would normally incorporate the detached
+entity will create a new managed entity with the same identity.
+                </p>
+            </li></ol></div>
+        <div class="note" title="Note" style="margin-left: 0.5in; margin-right: 0.5in;"><h3 class="title">Note</h3>
+            <p>
+OpenJPA offers several features related to detaching entities. See
+<a class="xref" href="ref_guide_remote.html#ref_guide_detach" title="1.&nbsp; Detach and Attach">Section&nbsp;1, &#8220;
+            Detach and Attach
+        &#8221;</a> in the Reference Guide.
+<a class="xref" href="ref_guide_remote.html#ref_guide_detach_graph" title="1.3.&nbsp; Defining the Detached Object Graph">Section&nbsp;1.3, &#8220;
+                Defining the Detached Object Graph
+            &#8221;</a> in particular describes how to
+use the <code class="literal">DetachState</code> setting to boost the performance of
+merging detached entities.
+            </p>
+        </div>
+        <p>
+Injected <code class="classname">EntityManager</code>s have a <span class="emphasis"><em>transaction
+</em></span> persistence context,
+while <code class="classname"> EntityManager</code>s obtained through the
+<code class="classname">EntityManagerFactory</code> have an <span class="emphasis"><em>extended
+</em></span> persistence context. We describe these persistence context types
+below.
+        </p>
+        <div class="section" title="3.1.&nbsp; Transaction Persistence Context"><div class="titlepage"><div><div><h3 class="title" id="jpa_overview_emfactory_perscontext_trans">3.1.&nbsp;
+                Transaction Persistence Context
+            </h3></div></div></div>
+            
+            <p>
+Under the transaction persistence context model, an <code class="classname"> EntityManager
+</code> begins a new persistence context with each transaction, and ends
+the context when the transaction commits or rolls back. Within the transaction,
+entities you retrieve through the <code class="classname">EntityManager</code> or via
+<code class="classname">Queries</code> are managed entities. They can access datastore
+resources to lazy-load additional persistent state as needed, and only one
+entity may exist for any persistent identity.
+            </p>
+            <p>
+When the transaction completes, all entities lose their association with the
+<code class="classname">EntityManager</code> and become detached. Traversing a
+persistent field that wasn't already loaded now has undefined results. And using
+the <code class="classname"> EntityManager</code> or a <code class="classname">Query</code> to
+retrieve additional objects may now create new instances with the same
+persistent identities as detached instances.
+            </p>
+            <p>
+If you use an <code class="classname">EntityManager</code> with a transaction
+persistence context model outside of an active transaction, each method
+invocation creates a new persistence context, performs the method action, and
+ends the persistence context. For example, consider using the <code class="methodname">
+EntityManager.find</code> method outside of a transaction. The <code class="classname">
+EntityManager</code> will create a temporary persistence context, perform
+the find operation, end the persistence context, and return the detached result
+object to you. A second call with the same id will return a second detached
+object.
+            </p>
+            <p>
+When the next transaction begins, the <code class="classname">EntityManager</code> will
+begin a new persistence context, and will again start returning managed
+entities. As you'll see in <a class="xref" href="jpa_overview_em.html" title="Chapter&nbsp;8.&nbsp; EntityManager">Chapter&nbsp;8, <i>
+        EntityManager
+    </i></a>, you can
+also merge the previously-detached entities back into the new persistence
+context.
+            </p>
+            <div class="example"><a name="jpa_overview_emfactory_perscontext_transex"></a><p class="title"><b>Example&nbsp;7.1.&nbsp;
+                    Behavior of Transaction Persistence Context
+                </b></p><div class="example-contents">
+                
+                <p>
+The following code illustrates the behavior of entities under an <code class="classname">
+EntityManager</code> using a transaction persistence context.
+                </p>
+<pre class="programlisting">
+EntityManager em; // injected
+...
+
+// outside a transaction:
+
+// each operation occurs in a separate persistence context, and returns 
+// a new detached instance
+Magazine mag1 = em.find(Magazine.class, magId);
+Magazine mag2 = em.find(Magazine.class, magId);
+assertTrue(mag2 != mag1);
+...
+
+// transaction begins:
+
+// within a transaction, a subsequent lookup doesn't return any of the
+// detached objects.  however, two lookups within the same transaction
+// return the same instance, because the persistence context spans the
+// transaction
+Magazine mag3 = em.find(Magazine.class, magId);
+assertTrue(mag3 != mag1 &amp;&amp; mag3 != mag2);
+Magazine mag4 = em.find(Magazine.class, magId);
+assertTrue(mag4 == mag3);
+...
+
+// transaction commits:
+
+// once again, each operation returns a new instance
+Magazine mag5 = em.find(Magazine.class, magId);
+assertTrue(mag5 != mag3);
+</pre>
+            </div></div><br class="example-break">
+        </div>
+        <div class="section" title="3.2.&nbsp; Extended Persistence Context"><div class="titlepage"><div><div><h3 class="title" id="jpa_overview_emfactory_perscontext_extend">3.2.&nbsp;
+                Extended Persistence Context
+            </h3></div></div></div>
+            
+            <p>
+An <code class="classname">EntityManager</code> using an extended persistence context
+maintains the same persistence context for its entire lifecycle. Whether inside
+a transaction or not, all entities returned from the <code class="classname">EntityManager
+</code> are managed, and the <code class="classname">EntityManager</code> never
+creates two entity instances to represent the same persistent identity. Entities
+only become detached when you finally close the <code class="classname">EntityManager
+</code> (or when they are serialized).
+            </p>
+            <div class="example"><a name="jpa_overview_emfactory_perscontext_extendex"></a><p class="title"><b>Example&nbsp;7.2.&nbsp;
+                    Behavior of Extended Persistence Context
+                </b></p><div class="example-contents">
+                
+                <p>
+The following code illustrates the behavior of entities under an <code class="classname">
+EntityManager</code> using an extended persistence context.
+                </p>
+<pre class="programlisting">
+EntityManagerFactory emf = ...
+EntityManager em = emf.createEntityManager();
+
+// persistence context active for entire life of EM, so only one entity
+// for a given persistent identity
+Magazine mag1 = em.find(Magazine.class, magId);
+Magazine mag2 = em.find(Magazine.class, magId);
+assertTrue(mag2 == mag1);
+
+em.getTransaction().begin();
+
+// same persistence context active within the transaction
+Magazine mag3 = em.find(Magazine.class, magId);
+assertTrue(mag3 == mag1);
+Magazine mag4 = em.find(Magazine.class, magId);
+assertTrue(mag4 == mag1);
+
+em.getTransaction.commit();
+
+// when the transaction commits, instance still managed
+Magazine mag5 = em.find(Magazine.class, magId);
+assertTrue(mag5 == mag1);
+
+// instance finally becomes detached when EM closes
+em.close();
+</pre>
+            </div></div><br class="example-break">
+        </div>
+    </div><div class="navfooter"><hr><table width="100%" summary="Navigation footer"><tr><td width="40%" align="left"><a accesskey="p" href="jpa_overview_emfactory_em.html">Prev</a>&nbsp;</td><td width="20%" align="center"><a accesskey="u" href="jpa_overview_emfactory.html">Up</a></td><td width="40%" align="right">&nbsp;<a accesskey="n" href="jpa_overview_emf_properties.html">Next</a></td></tr><tr><td width="40%" align="left" valign="top">2.&nbsp;
+            Obtaining EntityManagers
+        &nbsp;</td><td width="20%" align="center"><a accesskey="h" href="manual.html">Home</a></td><td width="40%" align="right" valign="top">&nbsp;4.&nbsp;
+			Retrieving Properties Information
+		</td></tr></table></div></body></html>
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+<html><head>
+      <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=ISO-8859-1">
+   <title>6.&nbsp; PersistenceUnitUtil</title><base href="display"><link rel="stylesheet" type="text/css" href="css/docbook.css"><meta name="generator" content="DocBook XSL-NS Stylesheets V1.76.1"><link rel="home" href="manual.html" title="Apache OpenJPA 2.3 User's Guide"><link rel="up" href="jpa_overview_emfactory.html" title="Chapter&nbsp;7.&nbsp; EntityManagerFactory"><link rel="prev" href="jpa_overview_emfactory_close.html" title="5.&nbsp; Closing the EntityManagerFactory"><link rel="next" href="jpa_overview_em.html" title="Chapter&nbsp;8.&nbsp; EntityManager"></head><body bgcolor="white" text="black" link="#0000FF" vlink="#840084" alink="#0000FF"><div class="navheader"><table width="100%" summary="Navigation header"><tr><th colspan="3" align="center">6.&nbsp;
+            PersistenceUnitUtil
+        </th></tr><tr><td width="20%" align="left"><a accesskey="p" href="jpa_overview_emfactory_close.html">Prev</a>&nbsp;</td><th width="60%" align="center">Chapter&nbsp;7.&nbsp;
+        EntityManagerFactory
+    </th><td width="20%" align="right">&nbsp;<a accesskey="n" href="jpa_overview_em.html">Next</a></td></tr></table><hr></div><div class="section" title="6.&nbsp; PersistenceUnitUtil"><div class="titlepage"><div><div><h2 class="title" style="clear: both" id="jpa_overview_emfactory_puutil">6.&nbsp;
+            PersistenceUnitUtil
+        </h2></div></div></div>
+        
+        <a class="indexterm" name="d5e2292"></a>
+<pre class="programlisting">
+public PersistenceUnitUtil getPersistenceUnitUtil();
+</pre>
+        <p>
+The <code class="classname">EntityManagerFactory</code> method 
+<code class="methodname">getPersistenceUnitUtil</code> provides access to a 
+<code class="classname">PersistenceUnitUtil</code> utility. <code class="classname">PersistenceUnitUtil</code>
+can be used to obtain the identity of a managed object and determine the load
+state of the entity or one of its attributes.  If the object is not
+managed by one of the entity managers created from the entity manager factory 
+from which the utility was obtained, the <code class="methodname">getIdentifier</code> method will
+return null and the <code class="methodname">isLoaded</code> methods will return false.
+</p><pre class="programlisting">
+EntityManagerFactory emf = Persistence.createEntityManagerFactory();
+PersistenceUnitUtil puUtil = emf.getPersistenceUnitUtil();
+
+if (puUtil.getIdentifier(deptEntity) == null) {
+    throw new Exception("Identity is not valid.");
+}
+if (!puUtil.isLoaded(deptEntity, "employees")) {
+    throw new Exception("Employees not loaded.");
+}
+</pre><p>
+        </p>
+    </div><div class="navfooter"><hr><table width="100%" summary="Navigation footer"><tr><td width="40%" align="left"><a accesskey="p" href="jpa_overview_emfactory_close.html">Prev</a>&nbsp;</td><td width="20%" align="center"><a accesskey="u" href="jpa_overview_emfactory.html">Up</a></td><td width="40%" align="right">&nbsp;<a accesskey="n" href="jpa_overview_em.html">Next</a></td></tr><tr><td width="40%" align="left" valign="top">5.&nbsp;
+            Closing the EntityManagerFactory
+        &nbsp;</td><td width="20%" align="center"><a accesskey="h" href="manual.html">Home</a></td><td width="40%" align="right" valign="top">&nbsp;Chapter&nbsp;8.&nbsp;
+        EntityManager
+    </td></tr></table></div></body></html>
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+<html><head>
+      <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=ISO-8859-1">
+   <title>Chapter&nbsp;1.&nbsp; Introduction</title><base href="display"><link rel="stylesheet" type="text/css" href="css/docbook.css"><meta name="generator" content="DocBook XSL-NS Stylesheets V1.76.1"><link rel="home" href="manual.html" title="Apache OpenJPA 2.3 User's Guide"><link rel="up" href="jpa_overview.html" title="Part&nbsp;2.&nbsp;Java Persistence API"><link rel="prev" href="jpa_overview.html" title="Part&nbsp;2.&nbsp;Java Persistence API"><link rel="next" href="jpa_overview_intro_transpers.html" title="2.&nbsp; Lightweight Persistence"></head><body bgcolor="white" text="black" link="#0000FF" vlink="#840084" alink="#0000FF"><div class="navheader"><table width="100%" summary="Navigation header"><tr><th colspan="3" align="center">Chapter&nbsp;1.&nbsp;
+        Introduction
+    </th></tr><tr><td width="20%" align="left"><a accesskey="p" href="jpa_overview.html">Prev</a>&nbsp;</td><th width="60%" align="center">Part&nbsp;2.&nbsp;Java Persistence API</th><td width="20%" align="right">&nbsp;<a accesskey="n" href="jpa_overview_intro_transpers.html">Next</a></td></tr></table><hr></div><div class="chapter" title="Chapter&nbsp;1.&nbsp; Introduction" id="jpa_overview_intro"><div class="titlepage"><div><div><h2 class="title">Chapter&nbsp;1.&nbsp;
+        Introduction
+    </h2></div></div></div><div class="toc"><p><b>Table of Contents</b></p><dl><dt><span class="section"><a href="jpa_overview_intro.html#jpa_overview_intro_audience">1. 
+            Intended Audience
+        </a></span></dt><dt><span class="section"><a href="jpa_overview_intro_transpers.html">2. 
+            Lightweight Persistence
+        </a></span></dt></dl></div>
+    
+    <p>
+    <a class="indexterm" name="d5e102"></a>
+    <a class="indexterm" name="d5e105"></a>
+The Java Persistence 2.0 API (JPA 2.0) is a specification
+for the persistence of Java objects to any relational
+datastore. This document provides an overview of JPA 2.0. Unless
+otherwise noted, the information presented applies to all JPA implementations.
+    </p>
+    <div class="note" title="Note" style="margin-left: 0.5in; margin-right: 0.5in;"><h3 class="title">Note</h3>
+        <p>
+For coverage of OpenJPA's many extensions to the JPA specification,
+see the <a class="link" href="ref_guide_intro.html" title="Chapter&nbsp;1.&nbsp; Introduction">Reference Guide</a>.
+        </p>
+    </div>
+    <div class="section" title="1.&nbsp; Intended Audience"><div class="titlepage"><div><div><h2 class="title" style="clear: both" id="jpa_overview_intro_audience">1.&nbsp;
+            Intended Audience
+        </h2></div></div></div>
+        
+        <p>
+This document is intended for developers who want to learn about JPA
+in order to use it in their applications. It assumes that you have a strong
+knowledge of object-oriented concepts and Java, including annotations and
+generics. It also assumes some experience with relational databases and the
+Structured Query Language (SQL).
+        </p>
+    </div>
+    
+</div><div class="navfooter"><hr><table width="100%" summary="Navigation footer"><tr><td width="40%" align="left"><a accesskey="p" href="jpa_overview.html">Prev</a>&nbsp;</td><td width="20%" align="center"><a accesskey="u" href="jpa_overview.html">Up</a></td><td width="40%" align="right">&nbsp;<a accesskey="n" href="jpa_overview_intro_transpers.html">Next</a></td></tr><tr><td width="40%" align="left" valign="top">Part&nbsp;2.&nbsp;Java Persistence API&nbsp;</td><td width="20%" align="center"><a accesskey="h" href="manual.html">Home</a></td><td width="40%" align="right" valign="top">&nbsp;2.&nbsp;
+            Lightweight Persistence
+        </td></tr></table></div></body></html>
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+++ websites/production/openjpa/content/builds/2.3.0/apache-openjpa/docs/jpa_overview_intro_transpers.html Wed May 14 22:22:23 2014
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+<html><head>
+      <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=ISO-8859-1">
+   <title>2.&nbsp; Lightweight Persistence</title><base href="display"><link rel="stylesheet" type="text/css" href="css/docbook.css"><meta name="generator" content="DocBook XSL-NS Stylesheets V1.76.1"><link rel="home" href="manual.html" title="Apache OpenJPA 2.3 User's Guide"><link rel="up" href="jpa_overview_intro.html" title="Chapter&nbsp;1.&nbsp; Introduction"><link rel="prev" href="jpa_overview_intro.html" title="Chapter&nbsp;1.&nbsp; Introduction"><link rel="next" href="jpa_overview_why.html" title="Chapter&nbsp;2.&nbsp; Why JPA?"></head><body bgcolor="white" text="black" link="#0000FF" vlink="#840084" alink="#0000FF"><div class="navheader"><table width="100%" summary="Navigation header"><tr><th colspan="3" align="center">2.&nbsp;
+            Lightweight Persistence
+        </th></tr><tr><td width="20%" align="left"><a accesskey="p" href="jpa_overview_intro.html">Prev</a>&nbsp;</td><th width="60%" align="center">Chapter&nbsp;1.&nbsp;
+        Introduction
+    </th><td width="20%" align="right">&nbsp;<a accesskey="n" href="jpa_overview_why.html">Next</a></td></tr></table><hr></div><div class="section" title="2.&nbsp; Lightweight Persistence"><div class="titlepage"><div><div><h2 class="title" style="clear: both" id="jpa_overview_intro_transpers">2.&nbsp;
+            Lightweight Persistence
+        </h2></div></div></div>
+        
+        <a class="indexterm" name="d5e115"></a>
+        <p>
+        <a class="indexterm" name="d5e118"></a>
+<span class="emphasis"><em>Persistent data</em></span> is information that can outlive the program
+that creates it. The majority of complex programs use persistent data: GUI
+applications need to store user preferences across program invocations, web
+applications track user movements and orders over long periods of time, etc.
+        </p>
+        <p>
+<span class="emphasis"><em>Lightweight persistence</em></span> is the storage and retrieval of
+persistent data with little or no work from you, the developer. For example,
+Java serialization
+        <a class="indexterm" name="d5e123"></a>
+is a form of lightweight persistence because it can be used to persist Java
+objects directly to a file with very little effort. Serialization's capabilities
+as a lightweight persistence mechanism pale in comparison to those provided by
+JPA, however. The next chapter compares JPA to serialization and other available
+persistence mechanisms.
+        </p>
+    </div><div class="navfooter"><hr><table width="100%" summary="Navigation footer"><tr><td width="40%" align="left"><a accesskey="p" href="jpa_overview_intro.html">Prev</a>&nbsp;</td><td width="20%" align="center"><a accesskey="u" href="jpa_overview_intro.html">Up</a></td><td width="40%" align="right">&nbsp;<a accesskey="n" href="jpa_overview_why.html">Next</a></td></tr><tr><td width="40%" align="left" valign="top">Chapter&nbsp;1.&nbsp;
+        Introduction
+    &nbsp;</td><td width="20%" align="center"><a accesskey="h" href="manual.html">Home</a></td><td width="40%" align="right" valign="top">&nbsp;Chapter&nbsp;2.&nbsp;
+        Why JPA?
+    </td></tr></table></div></body></html>
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