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From bdem...@apache.org
Subject [18/23] shiro-site git commit: more html to md
Date Mon, 24 Oct 2016 14:33:11 GMT
http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/shiro-site/blob/f37b5848/tutorial.md.vtl
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+<a name="Tutorial-ApacheShiroTutorial"></a>
+Apache Shiro Tutorial
+=====================
+
+<table align="right" width="275" style="margin-left: 20px; margin-bottom: 20px; border-style:
solid; border-width: 2px; border-color: navy" cellpadding="10px"><tr><td>
+<div id="border">
+  <h2>Related Content</h2>
+	
+  <h3><a href="get-started.html">Getting Started</a></h3>
+  <p>Resources, guides and tutorials for new Shiro users. </br><span style="font-size:11"><a
href="get-started.html">Read More &gt;&gt;</a></span></p>	
+	
+	<h3><a href="10-minute-tutorial.html">10-Minute Shiro Tutorial</a></h3>
+  <p>Try Apache Shiro for yourself in under 10 minutes. </br><span style="font-size:11"><a
href="10-minute-tutorial.html">Read More &gt;&gt;</a></span></p>
+	
+  <h3><a href="webapp-tutorial.html">Web App Tutorial</a></h3>
+  <p>Step-by-step tutorial for securing a web application with Shiro. </br><span
style="font-size:11"><a href="webapp-tutorial.html">Read More &gt;&gt;</a></span></p>
+	
+</div>
+</td></tr></table>
+
+<a name="Tutorial-YourFirstApacheShiroApplication"></a>
+Your First Apache Shiro Application
+-----------------------------------
+
+If you're new to Apache Shiro, this short tutorial will show you how to set up an initial
and very simple application secured by Apache Shiro. We'll discuss Shiro's core concepts along
the way to help familiarize you with Shiro's design and API.
+
+If you don't want to actually edit files as you follow this tutorial, you can obtain a nearly
identical sample application and reference it as you go. Choose a location:
+
+*   In Apache Shiro's Git repository: [https://github.com/apache/shiro/tree/master/samples/quickstart](https://github.com/apache/shiro/tree/master/samples/quickstart)
+*   In Apache Shiro's source distribution's `samples/quickstart` directory. The source distribution
is available from the [Download](download.html "Download") page.
+
+<a name="Tutorial-Setup"></a>
+#[[###Setup]]#
+
+In this simple example, we'll create a very simple command-line application that will run
and quickly exit, just so you can get a feel for Shiro's API.
+
+#info('Any Application', 'Apache Shiro was designed from day one to support <em>any</em>
application - from the smallest command-line applications to the largest clustered web applications.
 Even though we''re creating a simple app for this tutorial, know that the same usage patterns
apply no matter how your application is created or where it is deployed.')
+
+This tutorial requires Java 1.5 or later. We'll also be using Apache [Maven](http://maven.apache.org)
as our build tool, but of course this is not required to use Apache Shiro. You may acquire
Shiro's .jars and incorporate them in any way you like into your application, for example
maybe using Apache [Ant](http://ant.apache.org) and [Ivy](http://ant.apache.org/ivy).
+
+For this tutorial, please ensure that you are using Maven 2.2.1 or later. You should be able
to type `mvn --version` in a command prompt and see something similar to the following:
+
+**Testing Maven Installation**
+``` bash
+hazlewood:~/shiro-tutorial$ mvn --version
+Apache Maven 2.2.1 (r801777; 2009-08-06 12:16:01-0700)
+Java version: 1.6.0_24
+Java home: /System/Library/Java/JavaVirtualMachines/1.6.0.jdk/Contents/Home
+Default locale: en_US, platform encoding: MacRoman
+OS name: "mac os x" version: "10.6.7" arch: "x86_64" Family: "mac"
+```
+
+For now, create a new directory on your filesystem, for example, **`shiro-tutorial`** and
save the following Maven **`pom.xml`** file in that directory:
+
+**pom.xml**
+
+``` xml
+<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
+    <project xmlns="http://maven.apache.org/POM/4.0.0"
+        xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
+         xsi:schemaLocation="http://maven.apache.org/POM/4.0.0 http://maven.apache.org/maven-v4_0_0.xsd">
+
+    <modelVersion>4.0.0</modelVersion>
+    <groupId>org.apache.shiro.tutorials</groupId>
+    <artifactId>shiro-tutorial</artifactId>
+    <version>1.0.0-SNAPSHOT</version>
+    <name>First Apache Shiro Application</name>
+    <packaging>jar</packaging>
+
+    <properties>
+        <project.build.sourceEncoding>UTF-8</project.build.sourceEncoding>
+    </properties>
+
+    <build>
+        <plugins>
+            <plugin>
+                <groupId>org.apache.maven.plugins</groupId>
+                <artifactId>maven-compiler-plugin</artifactId>
+                <version>2.0.2</version>
+                <configuration>
+                    <source>1.5</source>
+                    <target>1.5</target>
+                    <encoding>${project.build.sourceEncoding}</encoding>
+                </configuration>
+            </plugin>
+
+        <!-- This plugin is only to test run our little application.  It is not
+             needed in most Shiro-enabled applications: -->
+            <plugin>
+                <groupId>org.codehaus.mojo</groupId>
+                <artifactId>exec-maven-plugin</artifactId>
+                <version>1.1</version>
+                <executions>
+                    <execution>
+                        <goals>
+                            <goal>java</goal>
+                        </goals>
+                    </execution>
+                </executions>
+                <configuration>
+                    <classpathScope>test</classpathScope>
+                    <mainClass>Tutorial</mainClass>
+                </configuration>
+            </plugin>
+        </plugins>
+    </build>
+
+    <dependencies>
+        <dependency>
+            <groupId>org.apache.shiro</groupId>
+            <artifactId>shiro-core</artifactId>
+            <version>1.1.0</version>
+        </dependency>
+        <!-- Shiro uses SLF4J for logging.  We'll use the 'simple' binding
+             in this example app.  See http://www.slf4j.org for more info. -->
+        <dependency>
+            <groupId>org.slf4j</groupId>
+            <artifactId>slf4j-simple</artifactId>
+            <version>1.6.1</version>
+            <scope>test</scope>
+        </dependency>
+    </dependencies>
+
+</project>
+```
+
+<a name="Tutorial-TheTutorialclass"></a>
+#[[####The Tutorial class]]#
+
+We'll be running a simple command-line application, so we'll need to create a Java class
with a `public static void main(String[] args)` method.
+
+In the same directory containing your `pom.xml` file, create a *`src/main/java` sub directory.
In `src/main/java` create a `Tutorial.java` file with the following contents:
+
+**src/main/java/Tutorial.java**
+
+``` java
+import org.apache.shiro.SecurityUtils;
+import org.apache.shiro.authc.*;
+import org.apache.shiro.config.IniSecurityManagerFactory;
+import org.apache.shiro.mgt.SecurityManager;
+import org.apache.shiro.session.Session;
+import org.apache.shiro.subject.Subject;
+import org.apache.shiro.util.Factory;
+import org.slf4j.Logger;
+import org.slf4j.LoggerFactory;
+
+public class Tutorial {
+
+    private static final transient Logger log = LoggerFactory.getLogger(Tutorial.class);
+
+    public static void main(String[] args) {
+        log.info("My First Apache Shiro Application");
+        System.exit(0);
+    }
+}
+```
+
+Don't worry about the import statements for now - we'll get to them shortly. But for now,
we've got a typical command line program 'shell'. All this program will do is print out the
text "My First Apache Shiro Application" and exit.
+
+<a name="Tutorial-TestRun"></a>
+#[[###Test Run]]#
+
+To try our Tutorial application, execute the following in a command prompt in your tutorial
project's root dirctory (e.g. `shiro-tutorial`), and type the following:
+
+`mvn compile exec:java`
+
+And you will see our little Tutorial 'application' run and exit. You should see something
similar to the following (notice the bold text, indicating our output):
+
+**Run the Application**
+
+<code>
+lhazlewood:~/projects/shiro-tutorial$ mvn compile exec:java</br>
+</br>
+... a bunch of Maven output ...</br>
+</br>
+<strong>1 [Tutorial.main()] INFO Tutorial - My First Apache Shiro Application</strong></br>
+lhazlewood:~/projects/shiro-tutorial\$
+</code>
+
+We've verified the application runs successfully - now let's enable Apache Shiro. As we continue
with the tutorial, you can run `mvn compile exec:java` after each time we add some more code
to see the results of our changes.
+
+<a name="Tutorial-EnableShiro"></a>
+#[[###Enable Shiro]]#
+
+The first thing to understand in enabling Shiro in an application is that almost everything
in Shiro is related to a central/core component called the `SecurityManager`. For those familiar
with Java security, this is Shiro's notion of a SecurityManager - it is _NOT_ the same thing
as the `java.lang.SecurityManager`.
+
+While we will cover Shiro's design in detail in the [Architecture](architecture.html "Architecture")
chapter, it is good enough for now to know that the Shiro `SecurityManager` is the core of
a Shiro environment for an application and one `SecurityManager` must exist per application.
So, the first thing we must do in our Tutorial application is set-up the `SecurityManager`
instance.
+
+<a name="Tutorial-Configuration"></a>
+#[[####Configuration]]#
+
+While we could instantiate a `SecurityManager` class directly, Shiro's `SecurityManager`
implementations have enough configuration options and internal components that make this a
pain to do in Java source code - it would be much easier to configure the `SecurityManager`
with a flexible text-based configuration format.
+
+To that end, Shiro provides a default ‘common denominator’ solution via text-based [INI](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/INI_file)
configuration. People are pretty tired of using bulky XML files these days, and INI is easy
to read, simple to use, and requires very few dependencies. You’ll also see later that with
a simple understanding of object graph navigation, INI can be used effectively to configure
simple object graphs like the SecurityManager.
+
+#tip('Many Configuration Options', 'Shiro''s <code>SecurityManager</code> implementations
and all supporting components are all JavaBeans compatible.  This allows Shiro to be configured
with practically any configuration format such as XML (Spring, JBoss, Guice, etc), <a class="external-link"
href="http://www.yaml.org/" rel="nofollow">YAML</a>, JSON, Groovy Builder markup,
and more.  INI is just Shiro''s ''common denominator'' format that allows configuration in
any environment in case other options are not available.')
+
+<a name="Tutorial-%7B%7Bshiro.ini%7D%7D"></a>
+#[[#####`shiro.ini`]]#
+
+So we'll use an INI file to configure the Shiro `SecurityManager` for this simple application.
First, create a **`src/main/resources`** directory starting in the same directory where the
`pom.xml` is. Then create a `shiro.ini` file in that new directory with the following contents:
+
+**src/main/resources/shiro.ini**
+
+``` ini
+# =============================================================================
+# Tutorial INI configuration
+#
+# Usernames/passwords are based on the classic Mel Brooks' film "Spaceballs" :)
+# =============================================================================
+
+# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------
+# Users and their (optional) assigned roles
+# username = password, role1, role2, ..., roleN
+# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------
+[users]
+root = secret, admin
+guest = guest, guest
+presidentskroob = 12345, president
+darkhelmet = ludicrousspeed, darklord, schwartz
+lonestarr = vespa, goodguy, schwartz
+
+# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------
+# Roles with assigned permissions
+# roleName = perm1, perm2, ..., permN
+# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------
+[roles]
+admin = *
+schwartz = lightsaber:*
+goodguy = winnebago:drive:eagle5
+```
+
+As you see, this configuration basically sets up a small set of static user accounts, good
enough for our first application. In later chapters, you will see how we can use more complex
User data sources like relational databases, LDAP an ActiveDirectory, and more.
+
+<a name="Tutorial-ReferencingtheConfiguration"></a>
+#[[####Referencing the Configuration]]#
+
+Now that we have an INI file defined, we can create the `SecurityManager` instance in our
Tutorial application class. Change the `main` method to reflect the following updates:
+
+``` java
+public static void main(String[] args) {
+
+    log.info("My First Apache Shiro Application");
+
+    //1.
+    Factory<SecurityManager> factory = new IniSecurityManagerFactory("classpath:shiro.ini");
+
+    //2.
+    SecurityManager securityManager = factory.getInstance();
+
+    //3.
+    SecurityUtils.setSecurityManager(securityManager);
+
+    System.exit(0);
+}
+```
+
+And there we go - Shiro is enabled in our sample application after adding only 3 lines of
code! How easy was that?
+
+Feel free to run `mvn compile exec:java` and see that everything still runs successfully
(due to Shiro's default logging of debug or lower, you won't see any Shiro log messages -
if it starts and runs without error, then you know everything is still ok).
+
+Here is what the above additions are doing:
+
+1.  We use Shiro's `IniSecurityManagerFactory` implementation to ingest our `shiro.ini` file
which is located at the root of the classpath. This implementation reflects Shiro's support
of the [Factory Method Design Pattern](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Factory_method_pattern).
The `classpath:` prefix is an resource indicator that tells shiro where to load the ini file
from (other prefixes, like `url:` and `file:` are supported as well).
+
+2.  The `factory.getInstance()` method is called, which parses the INI file and returns a
`SecurityManager` instance reflecting the configuration.
+
+3.  In this simple example, we set the `SecurityManager` to be a _static_ (memory) singleton,
accessible across the JVM. Note however that this is not desireable if you will ever have
more than one Shiro-enabled application in a single JVM. For this simple example, it is ok,
but more sophisticated application environments will usually place the `SecurityManager` in
application-specific memory (such as in a web app's `ServletContext` or a Spring, Guice or
JBoss DI container instance).
+
+<a name="Tutorial-UsingShiro"></a>
+#[[###Using Shiro]]#
+
+Now that our SecurityManager is set-up and ready-to go, now we can start doing the things
we really care about - performing security operations.
+
+When securing our applications, probably the most relevant questions we ask ourselves are
“Who is the current user?” or “Is the current user allowed to do X”? It is common
to ask these questions as we're writing code or designing user interfaces: applications are
usually built based on user stories, and you want functionality represented (and secured)
based on a per-user basis. So, the most natural way for us to think about security in our
application is based on the current user. Shiro’s API fundamentally represents the notion
of 'the current user' with its `Subject` concept.
+
+In almost all environments, you can obtain the currently executing user via the following
call:
+
+``` java
+Subject currentUser = SecurityUtils.getSubject();
+```
+
+Using [`SecurityUtils`](static/current/apidocs/org/apache/shiro/SecurityUtils.html).[getSubject()](static/current/apidocs/org/apache/shiro/SecurityUtils.html#getSubject--),
we can obtain the currently executing [`Subject`](static/current/apidocs/org/apache/shiro/subject/Subject.html).
_Subject_ is a security term that basically means "a security-specific view of the currently
executing user". It is not called a 'User' because the word 'User' is usually associated with
a human being. In the security world, the term 'Subject' can mean a human being, but also
a 3rd party process, cron job, daemon account, or anything similar. It simply means 'the thing
that is currently interacting with the software'. For most intents and purposes though, you
can think of the `Subject` as Shiro’s ‘User’ concept.
+
+The `getSubject()` call in a standalone application might return a `Subject` based on user
data in an application-specific location, and in a server environment (e.g. web app), it acquires
the `Subject` based on user data associated with current thread or incoming request.
+
+Now that you have a `Subject`, what can you do with it?
+
+If you want to make things available to the user during their current session with the application,
you can get their session:
+
+``` java
+Session session = currentUser.getSession();
+session.setAttribute( "someKey", "aValue" );
+```
+
+The `Session` is a Shiro-specific instance that provides most of what you're used to with
regular HttpSessions but with some extra goodies and one **big** difference: it does not require
an HTTP environment!
+
+If deploying inside a web application, by default the `Session` will be `HttpSession` based.
But, in a non-web environment, like this simple tutorial application, Shiro will automatically
use its Enterprise Session Management by default. This means you get to use the same API in
your applications, in any tier, regardless of deployment environment! This opens a whole new
world of applications since any application requiring sessions does not need to be forced
to use the `HttpSession` or EJB Stateful Session Beans. And, any client technology can now
share session data.
+
+So now you can acquire a `Subject` and their `Session`. What about the _really_ useful stuff
like checking if they are allowed to do things, like checking against roles and permissions?
+
+Well, we can only do those checks for a known user. Our `Subject` instance above represents
the current user, but _who_ is the current user? Well, they're anonymous - that is, until
they log in at least once. So, let's do that:
+
+``` java
+if ( !currentUser.isAuthenticated() ) {
+    //collect user principals and credentials in a gui specific manner
+    //such as username/password html form, X509 certificate, OpenID, etc.
+    //We'll use the username/password example here since it is the most common.
+    UsernamePasswordToken token = new UsernamePasswordToken("lonestarr", "vespa");
+
+    //this is all you have to do to support 'remember me' (no config - built in!):
+    token.setRememberMe(true);
+
+    currentUser.login(token);
+}
+```
+
+That's it! It couldn't be easier.
+
+But what if their login attempt fails? You can catch all sorts of specific exceptions that
tell you exactly what happened and allows you to handle and react accordingly:
+
+``` java
+try {
+    currentUser.login( token );
+    //if no exception, that's it, we're done!
+} catch ( UnknownAccountException uae ) {
+    //username wasn't in the system, show them an error message?
+} catch ( IncorrectCredentialsException ice ) {
+    //password didn't match, try again?
+} catch ( LockedAccountException lae ) {
+    //account for that username is locked - can't login.  Show them a message?
+}
+    ... more types exceptions to check if you want ...
+} catch ( AuthenticationException ae ) {
+    //unexpected condition - error?
+}
+```
+
+There are many different types of exceptions you can check, or throw your own for custom
conditions Shiro might not account for. See the [AuthenticationException JavaDoc](static/current/apidocs/org/apache/shiro/authc/AuthenticationException.html)
for more.
+
+#tip('Handy Hint', 'Security best practice is to give generic login failure messages to users
because you do not want to aid an attacker trying to break into your system.')
+
+Ok, so by now, we have a logged in user. What else can we do?
+
+Let's say who they are:
+
+``` java
+//print their identifying principal (in this case, a username): 
+log.info( "User [" + currentUser.getPrincipal() + "] logged in successfully." );
+```
+
+We can also test to see if they have specific role or not:
+
+``` java
+if ( currentUser.hasRole( "schwartz" ) ) {
+    log.info("May the Schwartz be with you!" );
+} else {
+    log.info( "Hello, mere mortal." );
+}
+```
+
+We can also see if they have a permission to act on a certain type of entity:
+
+``` java
+if ( currentUser.isPermitted( "lightsaber:weild" ) ) {
+    log.info("You may use a lightsaber ring.  Use it wisely.");
+} else {
+    log.info("Sorry, lightsaber rings are for schwartz masters only.");
+}
+```
+
+Also, we can perform an extremely powerful _instance-level_ permission check - the ability
to see if the user has the ability to access a specific instance of a type:
+
+``` java
+if ( currentUser.isPermitted( "winnebago:drive:eagle5" ) ) {
+    log.info("You are permitted to 'drive' the 'winnebago' with license plate (id) 'eagle5'.
 " +
+                "Here are the keys - have fun!");
+} else {
+    log.info("Sorry, you aren't allowed to drive the 'eagle5' winnebago!");
+}
+```
+
+Piece of cake, right?
+
+Finally, when the user is done using the application, they can log out:
+
+``` java
+currentUser.logout(); //removes all identifying information and invalidates their session
too.
+```
+
+<a name="Tutorial-FinalTutorialclass"></a>
+#[[####Final Tutorial class]]#
+
+After adding in the above code examples, here is our final Tutorial class file. Feel free
to edit and play with it and change the security checks (and the INI configuration) as you
like:
+
+**Final src/main/java/Tutorial.java**
+
+``` java
+import org.apache.shiro.SecurityUtils;
+import org.apache.shiro.authc.*;
+import org.apache.shiro.config.IniSecurityManagerFactory;
+import org.apache.shiro.mgt.SecurityManager;
+import org.apache.shiro.session.Session;
+import org.apache.shiro.subject.Subject;
+import org.apache.shiro.util.Factory;
+import org.slf4j.Logger;
+import org.slf4j.LoggerFactory;
+
+public class Tutorial {
+
+    private static final transient Logger log = LoggerFactory.getLogger(Tutorial.class);
+
+    public static void main(String[] args) {
+        log.info("My First Apache Shiro Application");
+
+        Factory<SecurityManager> factory = new IniSecurityManagerFactory("classpath:shiro.ini");
+        SecurityManager securityManager = factory.getInstance();
+        SecurityUtils.setSecurityManager(securityManager);
+
+        // get the currently executing user:
+        Subject currentUser = SecurityUtils.getSubject();
+
+        // Do some stuff with a Session (no need for a web or EJB container!!!)
+        Session session = currentUser.getSession();
+        session.setAttribute("someKey", "aValue");
+        String value = (String) session.getAttribute("someKey");
+        if (value.equals("aValue")) {
+            log.info("Retrieved the correct value! [" + value + "]");
+        }
+
+        // let's login the current user so we can check against roles and permissions:
+        if (!currentUser.isAuthenticated()) {
+            UsernamePasswordToken token = new UsernamePasswordToken("lonestarr", "vespa");
+            token.setRememberMe(true);
+            try {
+                currentUser.login(token);
+            } catch (UnknownAccountException uae) {
+                log.info("There is no user with username of " + token.getPrincipal());
+            } catch (IncorrectCredentialsException ice) {
+                log.info("Password for account " + token.getPrincipal() + " was incorrect!");
+            } catch (LockedAccountException lae) {
+                log.info("The account for username " + token.getPrincipal() + " is locked.
 " +
+                        "Please contact your administrator to unlock it.");
+            }
+            // ... catch more exceptions here (maybe custom ones specific to your application?
+            catch (AuthenticationException ae) {
+                //unexpected condition?  error?
+            }
+        }
+
+        //say who they are:
+        //print their identifying principal (in this case, a username):
+        log.info("User [" + currentUser.getPrincipal() + "] logged in successfully.");
+
+        //test a role:
+        if (currentUser.hasRole("schwartz")) {
+            log.info("May the Schwartz be with you!");
+        } else {
+            log.info("Hello, mere mortal.");
+        }
+
+        //test a typed permission (not instance-level)
+        if (currentUser.isPermitted("lightsaber:weild")) {
+            log.info("You may use a lightsaber ring.  Use it wisely.");
+        } else {
+            log.info("Sorry, lightsaber rings are for schwartz masters only.");
+        }
+
+        //a (very powerful) Instance Level permission:
+        if (currentUser.isPermitted("winnebago:drive:eagle5")) {
+            log.info("You are permitted to 'drive' the winnebago with license plate (id)
'eagle5'.  " +
+                    "Here are the keys - have fun!");
+        } else {
+            log.info("Sorry, you aren't allowed to drive the 'eagle5' winnebago!");
+        }
+
+        //all done - log out!
+        currentUser.logout();
+
+        System.exit(0);
+    }
+}
+```
+
+<a name="Tutorial-Summary"></a>
+#[[###Summary]]#
+
+Hopefully this introduction tutorial helped you understand how to set-up Shiro in a basic
application as well Shiro's primary design concepts, the `Subject` and `SecurityManager`.
+
+But this was a fairly simple application. You might have asked yourself, "What if I don't
want to use INI user accounts and instead want to connect to a more complex user data source?"
+
+To answer that question requires a little deeper understanding of Shiro's architecture and
supporting configuration mechanisms. We'll cover Shiro's [Architecture](architecture.html
"Architecture") next.


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