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From conflue...@apache.org
Subject [CONF] OpenEJB 3.0.x documentation: JPA Concepts (page edited)
Date Fri, 11 Jul 2008 20:15:00 GMT
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    -->
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</head>
<body>

<div id="PageContent">
<table class="pagecontent" border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" width="100%"><tr>
<td valign="top" class="pagebody">

    <div class="pageheader">
        <span class="pagetitle">
            Page Edited :
            <a href="http://cwiki.apache.org/confluence/display/OPENEJBx30">OPENEJBx30</a>
:
            <a href="http://cwiki.apache.org/confluence/display/OPENEJBx30/JPA+Concepts">JPA
Concepts</a>
        </span>
    </div>

     <p>
        <a href="http://cwiki.apache.org/confluence/display/OPENEJBx30/JPA+Concepts">JPA
Concepts</a>
        has been edited by             <a href="http://cwiki.apache.org/confluence/display/~dblevins">David
Blevins</a>
            <span class="smallfont">(Jul 11, 2008)</span>.
     </p>
    
     <p>
                 <a href="http://cwiki.apache.org/confluence/pages/diffpagesbyversion.action?pageId=88186&originalVersion=4&revisedVersion=5">(View
changes)</a>
     </p>

    <span class="label">Content:</span><br/>
    <div class="greybox wiki-content"><h1><a name="JPAConcepts-JPA101"></a>JPA
101</h1>

<p>If there's one thing you have to understand to successfully use JPA (Java Persistence
API) it's the concept of a <b>Cache</b>.  Almost everything boils down to the
Cache at one point or another.  Unfortunately the Cache is an internal thing and not exposed
via the JPA API classes, so it not easy to touch or feel from a coding perspective.</p>

<p>Here's a quick cheat of the JPA world:</p>

<ul class="alternate" type="square">
	<li>A <b>Cache</b> is a <b>copy if data</b>, copy meaning pulled
from but living outside the database.</li>
	<li><b>Flushing</b> a Cache is the act of putting modified data back into
the database.</li>
	<li>A <b>PersistenceContext</b> is essentially a Cache. It also tends to
have it's own non-shared database connection.</li>
	<li>An <b>EntityManager</b> represents a PersistenceContext (and therefore
a Cache)</li>
	<li>An <b>EntityManagerFactory</b> creates an EntityManager (and therefore
a PersistenceContext/Cache)</li>
</ul>



<ul class="alternate" type="square">
	<li>With &lt;persistence-unit transaction-type="<b>RESOURCE_LOCAL</b>"&gt;
<b>you</b> are responsible for EntityManager (PersistenceContext/Cache) creating
and tracking...
	<ul class="alternate" type="square">
		<li>You <b>must</b> use the <b>EntityManagerFactory</b> to
get an EntityManager</li>
		<li>The resulting <b>EntityManager</b> instance <b>is</b>
a PersistenceContext/Cache</li>
		<li>An <b>EntityManagerFactory</b> can be injected via the <b>@PersistenceUnit</b>
annotation only (not @PersistenceContext)</li>
		<li>You are <b>not</b> allowed to use @PersistenceContext to refer to
a unit of type RESOURCE_LOCAL</li>
		<li>You <b>must</b> use the <b>EntityTransaction</b> API to
begin/commit around <b>every</b> call to your EntityManger</li>
		<li>Calling entityManagerFactory.createEntityManager() twice results in <b>two</b>
separate EntityManager instances and therefor <b>two</b> separate PersistenceContexts/Caches.</li>
		<li>It is <b>almost never</b> a good idea to have more than one <b>instance</b>
of an EntityManager in use (don't create a second one unless you've destroyed the first)</li>
	</ul>
	</li>
</ul>



<ul class="alternate" type="square">
	<li>With &lt;persistence-unit transaction-type="<b>TRANSACTION</b>"&gt;
the <b>container</b> will do EntityManager (PersistenceContext/Cache) creating
and tracking...
	<ul class="alternate" type="square">
		<li>You <b>cannot</b> use the <b>EntityManagerFactory</b>
to get an EntityManager</li>
		<li>You can only get an <b>EntityManager</b> supplied by the <b>container</b></li>
		<li>An <b>EntityManager</b> can be injected via the <b>@PersistenceContext</b>
annotation only (not @PersistenceUnit)</li>
		<li>You are <b>not</b> allowed to use @PersistenceUnit to refer to a unit
of type TRANSACTION</li>
		<li>The <b>EntityManager</b> given by the container is a <b>reference</b>
to the PersistenceContext/Cache associated with a JTA Transaction.</li>
		<li>If no JTA transaction is in progress, the EntityManager <b>cannot be used</b>
because there is no PersistenceContext/Cache.</li>
		<li>Everyone with an EntityManager reference to the <b>same unit</b> in
the <b>same transaction</b> will automatically have a reference to the <b>same
PersistenceContext/Cache</b></li>
		<li>The PersistenceContext/Cache is <b>flushed</b> and cleared at JTA
<b>commit</b> time</li>
	</ul>
	</li>
</ul>


<h1><a name="JPAConcepts-Cache%3D%3DPersistenceContext"></a>Cache == PersistenceContext</h1>

<p>The concept of a database cache is an extremely important concept to be aware of.
 Without a copy of the data in memory (i.e. a cache) when you call account.getBalance() the
persistence provider would have to go read the value from the database.  Calling account.getBalance()
several times would cause several trips to the database.  This would obviously be a big waste
of resources.  The other side of having a cache is that when you call account.setBalance(5000)
it also doesn't hit the database (usually).  When the cache is "flushed" the data in it is
sent to the database via as many SQL updates, inserts and deletes as are required.  That is
the basics of java persistence of any kind all wrapped in a nutshell.  If you can understand
that, you're good to go in nearly any persistence technology java has to offer.</p>

<p>Complications can arise when there is more than one PersistenceContext/Cache relating
the same data in the same transaction.  In any given transaction you want exactly one PersistenceContext/Cache
for a given set of data.  Using a TRANSACTION unit with an EntityManager created by the container
will always guarantee that this is the case.  With a RESOURCE_LOCAL unit and an EntityManagerFactory
you should create and use exactly one EntityManager instance in your transaction to ensure
there is only one active PersistenceContext/Cache for the given set of data active against
the current transaction.</p>

<h1><a name="JPAConcepts-CachesandDetaching"></a>Caches and Detaching</h1>

<p>Detaching is the concept of a persistent object <b>leaving</b> the PersistenceContext/Cache.
 Leaving means that any updates made to the object are <b>not</b> reflected in
the PersistenceContext/Cache.  An object will become Detached if it somehow <b>lives
longer</b> or is <b>used outside</b> the scope of the PersistenceContext/Cache.
 </p>

<p>For a TRANSACTION unit, the PersistenceContext/Cache will live as long as the transaction
does.  When a transaction completes (commits or rollsback) all objects that were in the PersistenceContext/Cache
are Detached.  You can still use them, but they are no longer associated with a PersistenceContext/Cache
and modifications on them will <b>not</b> be reflected in a PersistenceContext/Cache
and therefore not the database either.</p>

<p>Serializing objects that are currently in a PersistenceContext/Cache will also cause
them to Detach.</p>

<p>In some cases objects or collections of objects that become Detached may not have
all the data you need.  This can be because of lazy loading.  With lazy loading, data isn't
pulled from the database and into the PersistenceContext/Cache until it is requested in code.
 In many cases the Collections of persistent objects returned from an javax.persistence.Query.getResultList()
call are completely empty until you iterate over them.  A side effect of this is that if the
Collection becomes Detached before it's been fully read it will be permanently empty and of
no use and calling methods on the Detached Collection can cause strange errors and exceptions
to be thrown.  If you wish to Detach a Collection of persistent objects it is always a good
idea to iterate over the Collection at least once.</p>

<p>You <b>cannot</b> call EntityManager.persist() or EntityManager.remove()
on a Detached object.</p>

<p>Calling EntityManager.refresh() or EntityManager.merge() will re-attach a Detached
object.</p>

<h1><a name="JPAConcepts-ValidRESOURCELOCALUnitusage"></a>Valid RESOURCE_LOCAL
Unit usage</h1>

<p>Servlets and EJBs can use RESOURCE_LOCAL persistence units through the EntityManagerFactory
as follows:</p>

<div class="code"><div class="codeContent">
<pre class="code-java">&lt;?xml version=<span class="code-quote">"1.0"</span>
encoding=<span class="code-quote">"UTF-8"</span> ?&gt;
&lt;persistence xmlns=<span class="code-quote">"http:<span class="code-comment">//java.sun.com/xml/ns/persistence"</span>
version=<span class="code-quote">"1.0"</span>&gt;
</span>
  &lt;!-- Tutorial <span class="code-quote">"unit"</span> --&gt;
  &lt;persistence-unit name=<span class="code-quote">"Tutorial"</span> transaction-type=<span
class="code-quote">"RESOURCE_LOCAL"</span>&gt;
    &lt;non-jta-data-source&gt;myNonJtaDataSource&lt;/non-jta-data-source&gt;
    &lt;class&gt;org.superbiz.jpa.Account&lt;/class&gt;
  &lt;/persistence-unit&gt;
	
&lt;/persistence&gt;</pre>
</div></div>

<div class="code"><div class="codeContent">
<pre class="code-java"><span class="code-keyword">import</span> javax.persistence.EntityManagerFactory;
<span class="code-keyword">import</span> javax.persistence.EntityManager;
<span class="code-keyword">import</span> javax.persistence.EntityTransaction;
<span class="code-keyword">import</span> javax.persistence.PersistenceUnit;

<span class="code-keyword">public</span> class MyEjbOrServlet ... {

    @PersistenceUnit(unitName=<span class="code-quote">"Tutorial"</span>)
    <span class="code-keyword">private</span> EntityManagerFactory factory;

    <span class="code-comment">// Proper exception handling left out <span class="code-keyword">for</span>
simplicity
</span>    <span class="code-keyword">public</span> void ejbMethodOrServletServiceMethod()
<span class="code-keyword">throws</span> Exception {
        EntityManager entityManager = factory.createEntityManager();

        EntityTransaction entityTransaction = entityManager.getTransaction();
        
        entityTransaction.begin();

        Account account = entityManager.find(Account.class, 12345);
        
        account.setBalance(5000);

        entityTransaction.commit();
    }
    
    ...
}</pre>
</div></div>

<h1><a name="JPAConcepts-ValidTRANSACTIONUnitusage"></a>Valid TRANSACTION
Unit usage</h1>

<p>EJBs can use TRANSACTION persistence units through the EntityManager as follows:</p>

<div class="code"><div class="codeContent">
<pre class="code-java">&lt;?xml version=<span class="code-quote">"1.0"</span>
encoding=<span class="code-quote">"UTF-8"</span> ?&gt;
&lt;persistence xmlns=<span class="code-quote">"http:<span class="code-comment">//java.sun.com/xml/ns/persistence"</span>
version=<span class="code-quote">"1.0"</span>&gt;
</span>
  &lt;!-- Tutorial <span class="code-quote">"unit"</span> --&gt;
  &lt;persistence-unit name=<span class="code-quote">"Tutorial"</span> transaction-type=<span
class="code-quote">"TRANSACTION"</span>&gt;
    &lt;jta-data-source&gt;myJtaDataSource&lt;/jta-data-source&gt;
    &lt;non-jta-data-source&gt;myNonJtaDataSource&lt;/non-jta-data-source&gt;
    &lt;class&gt;org.superbiz.jpa.Account&lt;/class&gt;
  &lt;/persistence-unit&gt;
	
&lt;/persistence&gt;</pre>
</div></div>

<div class="code"><div class="codeContent">
<pre class="code-java"><span class="code-keyword">import</span> javax.ejb.Stateless;
<span class="code-keyword">import</span> javax.ejb.TransactionAttribute;
<span class="code-keyword">import</span> javax.ejb.TransactionAttributeType;
<span class="code-keyword">import</span> javax.persistence.EntityManager;
<span class="code-keyword">import</span> javax.persistence.PersistenceContext;

@Stateless
<span class="code-keyword">public</span> class MyEjb <span class="code-keyword">implements</span>
MyEjbInterface {

    @PersistenceContext(unitName = <span class="code-quote">"Tutorial"</span>)
    <span class="code-keyword">private</span> EntityManager entityManager;

    <span class="code-comment">// Proper exception handling left out <span class="code-keyword">for</span>
simplicity
</span>    @TransactionAttribute(TransactionAttributeType.REQUIRED)
    <span class="code-keyword">public</span> void ejbMethod() <span class="code-keyword">throws</span>
Exception {

        Account account = entityManager.find(Account.class, 12345);

        account.setBalance(5000);

    }
}</pre>
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