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From c...@apache.org
Subject cvs commit: xml-site/targets/fop faq.html
Date Tue, 24 May 2005 15:46:34 GMT
clay        2005/05/24 08:46:34

  Modified:    targets/fop faq.html
  Log:
  manually added TOC to FAQ (Forrest TOC generation problem for FAQ isn't fixed... I just manually added TOC).
  
  Revision  Changes    Path
  1.42      +1573 -1   xml-site/targets/fop/faq.html
  
  Index: faq.html
  ===================================================================
  RCS file: /home/cvs/xml-site/targets/fop/faq.html,v
  retrieving revision 1.41
  retrieving revision 1.42
  diff -u -r1.41 -r1.42
  --- faq.html	6 Apr 2005 07:15:27 -0000	1.41
  +++ faq.html	24 May 2005 15:46:34 -0000	1.42
  @@ -3,7 +3,7 @@
   <head>
   <META http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=UTF-8">
   <meta content="Apache Forrest" name="Generator">
  -<meta name="Forrest-version" content="0.7-dev">
  +<meta name="Forrest-version" content="0.6">
   <meta name="Forrest-skin-name" content="pelt">
   <title>FOP FAQ</title>
   <link type="text/css" href="skin/basic.css" rel="stylesheet">
  @@ -214,6 +214,1578 @@
           PDF</a>
   </div>
   <h1>FOP FAQ</h1>
  +<ul class="minitoc">
  +<li>
  +<a href="#Questions">Questions</a>
  +<ul class="minitoc">
  +<li>
  +<a href="#part-general">1. General questions</a>
  +<ul class="minitoc">
  +<li>
  +<a href="#fop-general">1.1. What is FOP?</a>
  +</li>
  +<li>
  +<a href="#fop-functions">1.2. What can I do with FOP?</a>
  +</li>
  +<li>
  +<a href="#fop-acronym">1.3. What does "FOP" stand for?</a>
  +</li>
  +<li>
  +<a href="#fop-other-apache">1.4. How does FOP interact with other Apache Projects?</a>
  +</li>
  +<li>
  +<a href="#xsl-def">1.5. What is XSL?</a>
  +</li>
  +<li>
  +<a href="#xslfo">1.6. What is XSL-FO?</a>
  +</li>
  +<li>
  +<a href="#XSLT">1.7. What is XSLT?</a>
  +</li>
  +<li>
  +<a href="#when">1.8. When will feature X be implemented?</a>
  +</li>
  +<li>
  +<a href="#next-release">1.9. When is the next released planned?</a>
  +</li>
  +<li>
  +<a href="#redesign">1.10. Why did you redesign FOP?</a>
  +</li>
  +<li>
  +<a href="#contribute">1.11. How can I contribute?</a>
  +</li>
  +</ul>
  +</li>
  +<li>
  +<a href="#part-running">2. Problems running FOP</a>
  +<ul class="minitoc">
  +<li>
  +<a href="#no-page-master">2.1. I get the error: [ERROR]: 'master-reference' for
  +      'fo:page-sequence'matches no 'simple-page-master' or
  +      'page-sequence-master'</a>
  +</li>
  +<li>
  +<a href="#NoClassDefFound">2.2. I get a NoClassDefFound exception.</a>
  +</li>
  +<li>
  +<a href="#NoSuchMethodException">2.3. I get a NoSuchMethodException or a NoSuchFieldException
  +      exception.</a>
  +</li>
  +<li>
  +<a href="#OutOfMemoryException">2.4. I get an OutOfMemoryException.</a>
  +</li>
  +<li>
  +<a href="#MalformedURLException">2.5. I get a MalformedURLException.</a>
  +</li>
  +<li>
  +<a href="#NullPointerException">2.6. I get an "[ERROR]: null", or a NullPointerException.</a>
  +</li>
  +<li>
  +<a href="#not-implemented">2.7. FOP returns the message "[ERROR] object|property - 'x' is not implemented yet." When will it be implemented?</a>
  +</li>
  +<li>
  +<a href="#fop-hangs">2.8. FOP hangs. FOP does not exit.</a>
  +</li>
  +<li>
  +<a href="#boxoverflow">2.9. FOP runs forever, writing lots of "&gt;" to the log.</a>
  +</li>
  +<li>
  +<a href="#cannot-find-external-graphics">2.10. FOP cannot find a file for fo:external-graphics.</a>
  +</li>
  +<li>
  +<a href="#fonts-not-found">2.11. FOP does not find my fonts.</a>
  +</li>
  +</ul>
  +</li>
  +<li>
  +<a href="#part-output">3. Problems with FOP output</a>
  +<ul class="minitoc">
  +<li>
  +<a href="#leader-expansion">3.1. Leaders don't work anymore in 0.20.5. Instead of
  +      filling the line, only three dots or a short ruler is
  +      output.</a>
  +</li>
  +<li>
  +<a href="#blank-page-between-page-sequences">3.2. Why does FOP insert a blank page between my page sequences?</a>
  +</li>
  +<li>
  +<a href="#graphic-not-displayed">3.3. Why is my graphic not rendered?</a>
  +</li>
  +<li>
  +<a href="#png-fails">3.4. My graphical images do not work properly.</a>
  +</li>
  +<li>
  +<a href="#graphic-resolution">3.5. Why is my graphic rendered at a different resolution than it was created?</a>
  +</li>
  +<li>
  +<a href="#keep-with">3.6. Keep-with-next, keep-with-previous, keep-together
  +      don't work.</a>
  +</li>
  +<li>
  +<a href="#table-missing">3.7. My tables are missing, or missing their content.</a>
  +</li>
  +<li>
  +<a href="#cells-overflow">3.8. Text overflowing table cells and the like is not clipped. Long
  +        text flows into adjacent cells/block, obscuring stuff there.</a>
  +</li>
  +<li>
  +<a href="#page-number-align">3.9. Page numbers are not properly right aligned.</a>
  +</li>
  +<li>
  +<a href="#hyphenation-fails">3.10. Hyphenation does not work.</a>
  +</li>
  +</ul>
  +</li>
  +<li>
  +<a href="#part-embedding">4. Embedding FOP. Using FOP in a servlet.</a>
  +<ul class="minitoc">
  +<li>
  +<a href="#servlet">4.1. How do I use FOP in a servlet?</a>
  +</li>
  +<li>
  +<a href="#servlet-with-xslt">4.2. How do I use FOP in a servlet with an XSLT
  +      transformation?</a>
  +</li>
  +<li>
  +<a href="#servlet-xslt-params">4.3. How do I pass parameters to the XSLT transformation?</a>
  +</li>
  +<li>
  +<a href="#servlet-nonstd-fonts">4.4. How do I use my own fonts when running FOP from a
  +      servlet?</a>
  +</li>
  +<li>
  +<a href="#servlet-baseDir">4.5. How do I set the baseDir property in a servlet environment?</a>
  +</li>
  +<li>
  +<a href="#usercfg">4.6. How do I use a user configuration file from a servlet?</a>
  +</li>
  +<li>
  +<a href="#servlet-NoClassDefFound">4.7. I keep getting NoClassDefFound and other exceptions. How do I
  +        get FOP working for various servlet engines?</a>
  +</li>
  +<li>
  +<a href="#multithreaded">4.8. Can FOP be used in multithreaded environments?</a>
  +</li>
  +</ul>
  +</li>
  +<li>
  +<a href="#part-svg">5. SVG specific questions</a>
  +<ul class="minitoc">
  +<li>
  +<a href="#svg-text">5.1. The rendering of SVG text in my PDF is of poor quality.
  +Can I control this?</a>
  +</li>
  +<li>
  +<a href="#svg-headless">5.2. How do I use FOP with SVG on headless servers?</a>
  +</li>
  +<li>
  +<a href="#svghangs">5.3. FOP does not exit if a SVG is included.</a>
  +</li>
  +<li>
  +<a href="#svg-url">5.4. I have problems with SVG referring to gradients etc. using
  +        "uri(#stuff)". I get a MalformedURLException.</a>
  +</li>
  +<li>
  +<a href="#svg-scaling">5.5. Why is my SVG rendered at a size different from that specified in my fo:external-graphic element?</a>
  +</li>
  +</ul>
  +</li>
  +<li>
  +<a href="#part-pdf">6. PDF specific (includes Acrobat peculiarities)</a>
  +<ul class="minitoc">
  +<li>
  +<a href="#pdf-embed-font">6.1. How do I embed fonts in PDF?</a>
  +</li>
  +<li>
  +<a href="#pdf-characters">6.2. Some characters are not displayed, or displayed incorrectly, or
  +      displayed as &ldquo;#&rdquo;.</a>
  +</li>
  +<li>
  +<a href="#pdf-postprocess">6.3. What tools are available for post-processing my PDF document?</a>
  +</li>
  +<li>
  +<a href="#pdf-security">6.4. How do I add security features (encryption, disable printing)
  +      to my PDF document?</a>
  +</li>
  +<li>
  +<a href="#pdf-doc-properties">6.5. How do I add document properties (title, author, etc.) to my
  +      PDF document?</a>
  +</li>
  +<li>
  +<a href="#pdf-watermark">6.6. How do I add watermarks to my PDF document?</a>
  +</li>
  +<li>
  +<a href="#pdf-print-contortion">6.7. The PDF is printed contorted!</a>
  +</li>
  +<li>
  +<a href="#pdf-bookmark-display">6.8. How do I control the Acrobat bookmark display?</a>
  +</li>
  +</ul>
  +</li>
  +<li>
  +<a href="#part-iex">7. IEx specific stuff</a>
  +<ul class="minitoc">
  +<li>
  +<a href="#iex-servlet-multiple">7.1. The FOP servlet is called multiple times!</a>
  +</li>
  +<li>
  +<a href="#iex-pdf-print-from-browser">7.2. How do I print PDF directly from the browser?</a>
  +</li>
  +</ul>
  +</li>
  +<li>
  +<a href="#part-input">8. General questions regarding XSLT, XSLFO, and basic XML</a>
  +<ul class="minitoc">
  +<li>
  +<a href="#fo-center">8.1. (FO) How do I vertically center an image or a table (or
  +      whatever)?</a>
  +</li>
  +<li>
  +<a href="#fo-center-table-horizon">8.2. (FO) How do I center a table horizontally?</a>
  +</li>
  +<li>
  +<a href="#fo-page-outer">8.3. (FO) How to get page numbers printed on the "outer side" of the
  +        page (for books, for example)?</a>
  +</li>
  +<li>
  +<a href="#oddeven">8.4. (FO) How do I use different static content for odd and even
  +      pages?</a>
  +</li>
  +<li>
  +<a href="#fo-first-page-header">8.5. (FO) How do I get a special header on the first page?</a>
  +</li>
  +<li>
  +<a href="#fo-omit-headers">8.6. (FO) How do I omit my headers on a blank page? How do I write
  +      "This page is left blank" on an intentionally blank page?</a>
  +</li>
  +<li>
  +<a href="#fo-special-symbols">8.7. (FO) How do I print an Euro sign, a checkbox or other some other
  +      special symbols?</a>
  +</li>
  +<li>
  +<a href="#fo-preformat">8.8. (FO) How do I keep linebreaks and hard spaces? How do I get
  +        preformatted text displayed as expected?</a>
  +</li>
  +<li>
  +<a href="#fo-total-pages">8.9. (FO) How do I print the total number of pages, for example "page 1
  +      of 12"</a>
  +</li>
  +<li>
  +<a href="#fo-region-overlap">8.10. (FO) The header overlaps body content. The body extends into
  +      the footer.</a>
  +</li>
  +<li>
  +<a href="#fo-lines">8.11. (FO) How do I get lines in the document, as separators, side
  +      bars or folding marks?</a>
  +</li>
  +<li>
  +<a href="#fo-validate">8.12. (FO) How do I validate my FO document?</a>
  +</li>
  +<li>
  +<a href="#xml-non-breaking-space">8.13. (XML) How do I get a non-breaking space in FO? There are complaints about &amp;nbsp;.</a>
  +</li>
  +<li>
  +<a href="#xml-undefined-entities">8.14. (XML) How do I enter special characters in XML? There are complaints about undefined entities, such as &amp;uuml;, which work in HTML. </a>
  +</li>
  +<li>
  +<a href="#xml-illegal-entities">8.15. (XML) There are complaints about illegal characters and entities
  +      in the input.</a>
  +</li>
  +<li>
  +<a href="#xml-illegal-chars">8.16. (XML) There are complaints about illegal bytes or characters in
  +      the input. There are odd characters in the result.</a>
  +</li>
  +<li>
  +<a href="#xslt-current-date">8.17. (XSLT) How can I use the current date and time in my document?</a>
  +</li>
  +</ul>
  +</li>
  +<li>
  +<a href="#part-help">9. General suggestions. How to solve problems.</a>
  +<ul class="minitoc">
  +<li>
  +<a href="#bugs">9.1. I think I have found a bug in FOP. What should I do?</a>
  +</li>
  +<li>
  +<a href="#postquestions">9.2. I have questions that are not addressed in this FAQ. Where
  +      should I post them?</a>
  +</li>
  +</ul>
  +</li>
  +</ul>
  +</li>
  +</ul>
  +<a name="N10009"></a><a name="Questions"></a>
  +<div class="h3">
  +<h3>Questions</h3>
  +<a name="N1000D"></a><a name="part-general"></a>
  +<div class="h4">
  +<h4>1. General questions</h4>
  +<a name="N10011"></a><a name="fop-general"></a>
  +<h4 class="faq">1.1. What is FOP?</h4>
  +<div align="right">
  +<a href="#fop-general-menu">^</a>
  +</div>
  +<div style="margin-left: 15px">
  +<p>
  +        FOP is a print formatter for <a href="#XSLFO">XSL formatting
  +        objects</a>.
  +      </p>
  +<p>
  +        It can be used to render an XML file containing XSL formatting objects
  +        into a page layout. The main target is PDF but other rendering targets
  +        are supported, such as AWT, PCL, text and direct printing.
  +      </p>
  +</div>
  +<a name="N10020"></a><a name="fop-functions"></a>
  +<h4 class="faq">1.2. What can I do with FOP?</h4>
  +<div align="right">
  +<a href="#fop-functions-menu">^</a>
  +</div>
  +<div style="margin-left: 15px">
  +<p>
  +          FOP provides both an application and a library that converts an XSL FO
  +          document into paginated output.
  +        </p>
  +<p>
  +          The FOP command line application can be directly used to transform XML
  +          into PDF, PostScript, PCL and other formats, there is also an AWT
  +          based viewer integrated.
  +        </p>
  +<p>
  +          The library can be used in servlets and other Java applications.
  +        </p>
  +</div>
  +<a name="N1002E"></a><a name="fop-acronym"></a>
  +<h4 class="faq">1.3. What does "FOP" stand for?</h4>
  +<div align="right">
  +<a href="#fop-acronym-menu">^</a>
  +</div>
  +<div style="margin-left: 15px">
  +<p>
  +          It's an acronym for <strong>F</strong>ormatting
  +          <strong>O</strong>bject <strong>P</strong>rocessor
  +        </p>
  +</div>
  +<a name="N1003F"></a><a name="fop-other-apache"></a>
  +<h4 class="faq">1.4. How does FOP interact with other Apache Projects?</h4>
  +<div align="right">
  +<a href="#fop-other-apache-menu">^</a>
  +</div>
  +<div style="margin-left: 15px">
  +<p>
  +          FOP is distributed with <a class="external" href="http://xml.apache.org/cocoon">Cocoon</a> as a PDF serializer
  +          for XSL (FO) documents.
  +        </p>
  +<p>
  +          
  +<a class="external" href="http://xml.apache.org/batik">Batik</a> can be used with
  +          FOP to <a class="external" href="http://xml.apache.org/batik/svgrasterizer.html">transcode an SVG
  +          image</a> into a PDF document.
  +        </p>
  +</div>
  +<a name="N10056"></a><a name="xsl-def"></a>
  +<h4 class="faq">1.5. What is XSL?</h4>
  +<div align="right">
  +<a href="#xsl-def-menu">^</a>
  +</div>
  +<div style="margin-left: 15px">
  +<p>
  +          XSL is a W3C standard concerned with publishing XML documents. It
  +          consists of two parts: <a href="#XSLT">XSLT</a> and <a href="#XSLFO">XSLFO</a>. The acronym expands to
  +          e<strong>X</strong>tensible <strong>S</strong>tylesheet
  +          <strong>L</strong>anguage.
  +        </p>
  +</div>
  +<a name="N1006F"></a><a name="xslfo"></a>
  +<h4 class="faq">1.6. What is XSL-FO?</h4>
  +<div align="right">
  +<a href="#xslfo-menu">^</a>
  +</div>
  +<div style="margin-left: 15px">
  +<p>
  +          XSLFO is an XML vocabulary that is used to specify a pagination and
  +          other styling for page layout output. The acronym &ldquo;FO&rdquo;
  +          stands for
  +          <strong>F</strong>ormatting <strong>O</strong>bjects. XSLFO can be
  +          used in conjunction with <a href="#XSLT">XSLT</a> to convert
  +          from any XML format into a paginated layout ready for printing or
  +          displaying.
  +        </p>
  +<p>
  +          XSLFO defines a set of elements in XML that describes the way pages
  +          are set up. The contents of the pages are filled from flows. There can
  +          be static flows that appear on every page (for headers and footers)
  +          and the main flow which fills the body of the page.
  +        </p>
  +<p>
  +          Synonyms: XSL FO, XSL (FO), XSL:FO, XSL-FO, Formatting Objects
  +        </p>
  +</div>
  +<a name="N10087"></a><a name="XSLT"></a>
  +<h4 class="faq">1.7. What is XSLT?</h4>
  +<div align="right">
  +<a href="#XSLT-menu">^</a>
  +</div>
  +<div style="margin-left: 15px">
  +<p>
  +          XSLT describes the transformation of arbitrary XML input into other
  +          XML (like XSLFO), HTML or plain text. The &ldquo;T&rdquo; comes from
  +          <strong>T</strong>ransformation. For historical reasons, a
  +          transformation is often also called a &ldquo;style sheet&rdquo;.
  +        </p>
  +<p>
  +          Synonyms: XSL transformation, XSL:T, XSL style sheet.
  +        </p>
  +</div>
  +<a name="N10095"></a><a name="when"></a>
  +<h4 class="faq">1.8. When will feature X be implemented?</h4>
  +<div align="right">
  +<a href="#when-menu">^</a>
  +</div>
  +<div style="margin-left: 15px">
  +<p>The short answer is "Don't ask." For more details, see <a href="gethelp.html#limitations">Understand FOP's Limitations</a>.</p>
  +</div>
  +<a name="N100A1"></a><a name="next-release"></a>
  +<h4 class="faq">1.9. When is the next released planned?</h4>
  +<div align="right">
  +<a href="#next-release-menu">^</a>
  +</div>
  +<div style="margin-left: 15px">
  +<p> This depends on progress made so it is not possible to predict any dates. However, we think that at the
  +        current rate of progress we can start releasing again in the second half of 2005. If you want to speed up
  +        the process, consider to <a href="dev/index.html#involved">contribute</a> to FOP</p>
  +</div>
  +<a name="N100AD"></a><a name="redesign"></a>
  +<h4 class="faq">1.10. Why did you redesign FOP?</h4>
  +<div align="right">
  +<a href="#redesign-menu">^</a>
  +</div>
  +<div style="margin-left: 15px">
  +<p>The core redesign of FOP was necessary in order to be able to adress following issues:</p>
  +<ul>
  +          
  +<li>Keeps and Breaks</li>
  +          
  +<li>XSL-FO Compliance in general</li>
  +          
  +<li>Process Files of Arbitrary Size</li>
  +          
  +<li>Minimize Memory Use</li>
  +          
  +<li>Table Layout</li>
  +        
  +</ul>
  +</div>
  +<a name="N100C7"></a><a name="contribute"></a>
  +<h4 class="faq">1.11. How can I contribute?</h4>
  +<div align="right">
  +<a href="#contribute-menu">^</a>
  +</div>
  +<div style="margin-left: 15px">
  +<p>
  +          There are numerous ways that you can help. They are outlined in the <a href="dev/index.html">Developer's Introduction</a>.
  +        </p>
  +</div>
  +</div>
  +<a name="N100D3"></a><a name="part-running"></a>
  +<div class="h4">
  +<h4>2. Problems running FOP</h4>
  +<a name="N100D7"></a><a name="no-page-master"></a>
  +<h4 class="faq">2.1. I get the error: [ERROR]: 'master-reference' for
  +      'fo:page-sequence'matches no 'simple-page-master' or
  +      'page-sequence-master'</h4>
  +<div align="right">
  +<a href="#no-page-master-menu">^</a>
  +</div>
  +<div style="margin-left: 15px">
  +<p>
  +          FOP was changed to be in accordance with the latest standard (see
  +          <a href="resources.html#w3-xsl">XSL standard</a>).The page
  +          master for a fo:page-sequence is now refereced by the
  +          master-reference attribute. Replace the master-name attributes of
  +          your fo:page-sequence elements by master-reference attributes. You
  +          have to do this also for fo:single-page-master-reference,
  +          fo:repeatable-page-master-reference and
  +          fo:conditional-page-master-reference elements in you page master
  +          definitions.
  +        </p>
  +<p>
  +          Update your FO documents and style sheets.
  +        </p>
  +</div>
  +<a name="N100E6"></a><a name="NoClassDefFound"></a>
  +<h4 class="faq">2.2. I get a NoClassDefFound exception.</h4>
  +<div align="right">
  +<a href="#NoClassDefFound-menu">^</a>
  +</div>
  +<div style="margin-left: 15px">
  +<p>This is typically a problem with your classpath.</p>
  +<p>If you are running FOP from the command line:</p>
  +<ul>
  +          
  +<li>
  +            Use the fop.bat or fop.sh command file from the FOP
  +            distribution. If you have a FOP version older than 0.20.5,
  +            ensure the directory where FOP and these files have been
  +            installed is the current working directory.
  +          </li>
  +          
  +<li>
  +            If this doesn't help, check whether still all the jar files
  +            mentioned in the classpath in the fop.bat file are in their
  +            respective places.
  +          </li>
  +        
  +</ul>
  +<p>
  +          If you run FOP embedded in your servlet, web application or
  +          other Java application, check the classpath of the
  +          application. Check the also the information pertaining <a href="servlets.html#servlet-engine">servlet engines</a>
  +          for further hints.
  +        </p>
  +</div>
  +<a name="N10101"></a><a name="NoSuchMethodException"></a>
  +<h4 class="faq">2.3. I get a NoSuchMethodException or a NoSuchFieldException
  +      exception.</h4>
  +<div align="right">
  +<a href="#NoSuchMethodException-menu">^</a>
  +</div>
  +<div style="margin-left: 15px">
  +<p>
  +          This is usually caused by an older version of one of the FOP jars or
  +          old XML tools in the classpath. Check in particular for parser.jar,
  +          jaxp.jar, xml4j.jar or lotusxsl.jar.
  +        </p>
  +<p>
  +          Incompatible versions of Batik may also cause this problem. Use the
  +          version of Batik that comes with FOP. It is not always possible to
  +          use a more recent version of Batik.
  +        </p>
  +</div>
  +<a name="N1010C"></a><a name="OutOfMemoryException"></a>
  +<h4 class="faq">2.4. I get an OutOfMemoryException.</h4>
  +<div align="right">
  +<a href="#OutOfMemoryException-menu">^</a>
  +</div>
  +<div style="margin-left: 15px">
  +<p>
  +          See <a href="running.html#memory">FOP Memory</a>.
  +        </p>
  +</div>
  +<a name="N10118"></a><a name="MalformedURLException"></a>
  +<h4 class="faq">2.5. I get a MalformedURLException.</h4>
  +<div align="right">
  +<a href="#MalformedURLException-menu">^</a>
  +</div>
  +<div style="margin-left: 15px">
  +<a name="MalformedURL"></a>
  +<p>
  +          What you probably think of as "file names" are usually URLs, in
  +          particular the src attribute of fo:external-graphic.
  +        </p>
  +<p>
  +          Because usage of URLs is growing, you should make yourself familiar
  +          with it. The relevant specification is <a class="external" href="http://www.rfc-editor.org/rfc/rfc2396.txt">RFC 2396</a>.
  +        </p>
  +<p>
  +          In a nutshell, the correct syntax for an absolute file URL is
  +          <span class="codefrag">file:///some/path/file.ext</span> on Unix and
  +          <span class="codefrag">file:///z:/some/path/file.ext</span> on Windows systems. Note
  +          the triple slash, and also that only forward slashes are used, even on
  +          windows.
  +        </p>
  +<p>
  +          A relative file URL starts with anything but a slash, and doesn't have
  +          the <span class="codefrag">file:</span> prefix, for example <span class="codefrag">file.ext</span>,
  +          <span class="codefrag">path/file.ext</span> or <span class="codefrag">../file.ext</span>. The string
  +          <span class="codefrag">file:path/file.ext</span> is <em>not</em> a relative URL,
  +          in fact, it isn't a valid URL at all. A relative URL is subject to a
  +          resolving process, which transforms it into an absolute
  +          URL.
  +        </p>
  +</div>
  +<a name="N1014A"></a><a name="NullPointerException"></a>
  +<h4 class="faq">2.6. I get an "[ERROR]: null", or a NullPointerException.</h4>
  +<div align="right">
  +<a href="#NullPointerException-menu">^</a>
  +</div>
  +<div style="margin-left: 15px">
  +<p>
  +          This is often caused by an invalid FO document. Currently only very
  +          common errors are intercepted and produce a comprehensible error
  +          message. If you forgot container elements like fo:page-sequence or
  +          fo:flow and put blocks and inline elements directly as children of
  +          fo:root or fo:page-sequence, you'll only get a
  +          NullPointerException. Check whether your FO file has a proper
  +          structure. In some cases there are mandatory properties, like the
  +          master-reference in fo:conditional-page-master-reference, check also
  +          whether you got them right.
  +        </p>
  +<p>
  +          You may find it helpful to use the <a href="#FO-validate">validation tools</a> to validate your
  +          FO document. This will catch most problems, but should not be
  +          relied upon to catch all.
  +        </p>
  +<p>
  +          If you use XSLT, problems in your style sheet and in your source XML
  +          also can produce a NullPointerException. Run the transformation
  +          separately to check for this, usually you'll get a detailed error
  +          message from the XSLT processor.
  +        </p>
  +<p>
  +          If you turn on debugging with the "-d" option you may be able to
  +          see more detailed information.
  +        </p>
  +</div>
  +<a name="N1015F"></a><a name="not-implemented"></a>
  +<h4 class="faq">2.7. FOP returns the message "[ERROR] object|property - 'x' is not implemented yet." When will it be implemented?</h4>
  +<div align="right">
  +<a href="#not-implemented-menu">^</a>
  +</div>
  +<div style="margin-left: 15px">
  +<p>See the article "<a href="gethelp.html#compliance">Review FOP's Standards Compliance</a>".</p>
  +</div>
  +<a name="N1016E"></a><a name="fop-hangs"></a>
  +<h4 class="faq">2.8. FOP hangs. FOP does not exit.</h4>
  +<div align="right">
  +<a href="#fop-hangs-menu">^</a>
  +</div>
  +<div style="margin-left: 15px">
  +<p>
  +          The most likely reason is a known problem with the Java run time
  +          environment which is triggered by rendering SVGs. Suns JDK 1.4 does
  +          not have this problem. See also <a href="#svghangs">FOP does not
  +          exit if a SVG is included</a>.
  +        </p>
  +<p>
  +          Another possibility is that FOP went into a non terminating
  +          loop. Usually this is indicated by lots of log messages of the form
  +          "[INFO]: [NNNN]" which indicate a new page has been started or <a href="#boxoverflow">box overflows</a>. After some time, FOP will
  +          crash with an OutOfMemoryException.
  +        </p>
  +<p>
  +          If you called the FOP command line application from some other
  +          programm, for example from Java using Runtime.exec(), it may hang
  +          while trying to write log entries to the output pipe. You have to read
  +          the FOP output regularly to empty the pipe buffer. It is best to avoid
  +          exec'ing FOP, use the library interface instead.
  +        </p>
  +</div>
  +<a name="N10184"></a><a name="boxoverflow"></a>
  +<h4 class="faq">2.9. FOP runs forever, writing lots of "&gt;" to the log.</h4>
  +<div align="right">
  +<a href="#boxoverflow-menu">^</a>
  +</div>
  +<div style="margin-left: 15px">
  +<p>
  +          There is something too large to fit into the intended place, usually a
  +          large image, a table whose rows are kept together or a block with a
  +          space-before or space-after larger than the page size. Catch the first
  +          page showing this phenomenon and check it. If it is not obvious which
  +          element causes the trouble, remove stuff until the problem goes
  +          away. Decrease the dimensions of the offending element or property, or
  +          increase the dimension of the enclosing element or container, or
  +          remove keep-with-* properties.
  +        </p>
  +</div>
  +<a name="N1018C"></a><a name="cannot-find-external-graphics"></a>
  +<h4 class="faq">2.10. FOP cannot find a file for fo:external-graphics.</h4>
  +<div align="right">
  +<a href="#cannot-find-external-graphics-menu">^</a>
  +</div>
  +<div style="margin-left: 15px">
  +<p>The src attribute of the fo:external-graphics element requires a URI, not a file name. See <a href="fo.html#external-resources">External Resources</a> for more information about specifying URIs.</p>
  +</div>
  +<a name="N10198"></a><a name="fonts-not-found"></a>
  +<h4 class="faq">2.11. FOP does not find my fonts.</h4>
  +<div align="right">
  +<a href="#fonts-not-found-menu">^</a>
  +</div>
  +<div style="margin-left: 15px">
  +<p>
  +          Did you get: &laquo;Failed to read font metrics file C:\foo\arial.xml
  +          : File "C:\foo\arial.xml" not found&raquo;? The value for the
  +          metrics-file attribute in the user config file is actually an URL, not
  +          a file name. Use "file:///C:/foo/arial.xml" instead.
  +        </p>
  +<p>
  +          If you used a relative URL, make sure your application has the working
  +          directory you expect. Currently FOP does not use the baseDir for
  +          resolving relative URLs pointing to font metric files.
  +        </p>
  +<p>
  +          Try also setting the fontBaseDir configuration. (FIXME: add
  +          link to congfiguration page)
  +        </p>
  +</div>
  +</div>
  +<a name="N101A6"></a><a name="part-output"></a>
  +<div class="h4">
  +<h4>3. Problems with FOP output</h4>
  +<a name="N101AA"></a><a name="leader-expansion"></a>
  +<h4 class="faq">3.1. Leaders don't work anymore in 0.20.5. Instead of
  +      filling the line, only three dots or a short ruler is
  +      output.</h4>
  +<div align="right">
  +<a href="#leader-expansion-menu">^</a>
  +</div>
  +<div style="margin-left: 15px">
  +<p>
  +          Leaders still work, in fact they work better than ever
  +          before. You'll just have to add text-align="justify" and/or
  +          text-align-last="justify" to the block with the leader. Be
  +          sure you haven't accidentally overridden the
  +          leader-length.maximum="100%" default value.
  +        </p>
  +<p>
  +          Earlier versions of FOP used to expand a leader to fill the
  +          rest of the line unconditionally, anything following it,
  +          like page numbers in a TOC, was actually shifted beyong the
  +          right margin.
  +        </p>
  +<p>
  +          The new implementation uses leader-length.optimum to
  +          determine where to break the line, and expands the leader
  +          only further if the line should be filled, as indicated by
  +          the text-aling and text-align-last properties.
  +        </p>
  +<p>
  +          Actually due to the fuzzyness of the specification both the
  +          old and the new method are conformant (although adding text
  +          after the expanded leader in the old variant never was).
  +        </p>
  +<p>
  +          If you want to have a longer ruler or space in a
  +          non-justified line, you have to increase the
  +          leader-length.optimum property.
  +        </p>
  +</div>
  +<a name="N101BE"></a><a name="blank-page-between-page-sequences"></a>
  +<h4 class="faq">3.2. Why does FOP insert a blank page between my page sequences?</h4>
  +<div align="right">
  +<a href="#blank-page-between-page-sequences-menu">^</a>
  +</div>
  +<div style="margin-left: 15px">
  +<p>
  +          This is because spec conformance has been improved.
  +        </p>
  +<p>
  +          The <a class="external" href="http://www.w3.org/TR/xsl/slice7.html#force-page-count">force-page-count
  +          property</a> controls how a FO processor pads page sequences in
  +          order to get certain page counts or last page numbers. The default is
  +          "<span class="codefrag">auto</span>". With this setting, if the next page sequence
  +          begins with an odd page number because you set the
  +          initial-page-number, and the current page sequence also ends with an
  +          odd page number, the processor inserts a blank page to keep odd and
  +          even page numbers alternating (similar for the case the current page
  +          sequence ends with an even page number and the next page sequence
  +          starts with an even page number.
  +        </p>
  +<p>
  +          If you don't want to have this blank page, use
  +          <span class="codefrag">force-page-count="no-force"</span>.
  +        </p>
  +</div>
  +<a name="N101D6"></a><a name="graphic-not-displayed"></a>
  +<h4 class="faq">3.3. Why is my graphic not rendered?</h4>
  +<div align="right">
  +<a href="#graphic-not-displayed-menu">^</a>
  +</div>
  +<div style="margin-left: 15px">
  +<p>Most commonly, the external file is not being found by FOP.
  +Check the following:</p>
  +<ul>
  +          
  +<li>Empty or wrong baseDir setting.</li>
  +          
  +<li>Spelling errors in the file name (including using the wrong case).</li>
  +          
  +<li>Security Problems (i.e. image was not delivered because FOP is not allowed to read the file).
  +This is especially a problem if the external file is retrieved over HTTP.
  +Possible issues include security settings on the server, server configuration, and missing cookies or other authorization information.
  +Any easy way to check this is to cut&amp;paste the source URL from the fo:external-graphic into the Location field of a browser <strong>on the machine where the FOP process will be running</strong>.</li>
  +        
  +</ul>
  +<p>Other possibilities:</p>
  +<ul>
  +          
  +<li>The image format is not supported or not supported completely. See <a href="graphics.html">FOP Graphics Formats</a> for a list of supported formats and related issues.</li>
  +          
  +<li>The graphic may be too large to fit into the intended space.</li>
  +          
  +<li>There may be something (static content) that is obscuring the graphic. (This is very rare).
  +          </li>
  +        
  +</ul>
  +</div>
  +<a name="N10200"></a><a name="png-fails"></a>
  +<h4 class="faq">3.4. My graphical images do not work properly.</h4>
  +<div align="right">
  +<a href="#png-fails-menu">^</a>
  +</div>
  +<div style="margin-left: 15px">
  +<p>See <a href="graphics.html">FOP Graphics Formats</a> for a list of supported formats and related issues.</p>
  +</div>
  +<a name="N1020C"></a><a name="graphic-resolution"></a>
  +<h4 class="faq">3.5. Why is my graphic rendered at a different resolution than it was created?</h4>
  +<div align="right">
  +<a href="#graphic-resolution-menu">^</a>
  +</div>
  +<div style="margin-left: 15px">
  +<p>See <a href="graphics.html#resolution">Graphics Resolution</a>.</p>
  +</div>
  +<a name="N10218"></a><a name="keep-with"></a>
  +<h4 class="faq">3.6. Keep-with-next, keep-with-previous, keep-together
  +      don't work.</h4>
  +<div align="right">
  +<a href="#keep-with-menu">^</a>
  +</div>
  +<div style="margin-left: 15px">
  +<p>
  +          These properties are not implemented, except on table rows. In
  +          order to take advantage of them, you have to nest stuff to be
  +          kept together in a table.
  +        </p>
  +<p>
  +          The concept is called &ldquo;blind table&rdquo;. The table is used for
  +          pure layout reasons and not obvious in the output.
  +        </p>
  +<p>
  +          An example of an image and the image caption to be kept together:
  +        </p>
  +<pre class="code">&lt;fo:table table-layout="fixed" width="100%"&gt;
  +  &lt;fo:table-column column-width="proportional-column-width(1)"/&gt;
  +  &lt;fo:table-body&gt;
  +    &lt;fo:table-row keep-with-next="always"&gt;
  +      &lt;fo:table-cell&gt;
  +        &lt;fo:block&gt;
  +          &lt;fo:external-graphic src="foo.jpg"/&gt;
  +        &lt;/fo:block&gt;
  +      &lt;/fo:table-cell&gt;
  +    &lt;/fo:table-row&gt;
  +    &lt;fo:table-row&gt;
  +      &lt;fo:table-cell&gt;
  +        &lt;fo:block&gt;Image Caption&lt;/fo:block&gt;
  +      &lt;/fo:table-cell&gt;
  +    &lt;/fo:table-row&gt;
  +  &lt;/fo:table-body&gt;
  +&lt;/fo:table&gt;</pre>
  +</div>
  +<a name="N1022A"></a><a name="table-missing"></a>
  +<h4 class="faq">3.7. My tables are missing, or missing their content.</h4>
  +<div align="right">
  +<a href="#table-missing-menu">^</a>
  +</div>
  +<div style="margin-left: 15px">
  +<p>
  +          Check for fo:table-body around the rows. FOP up to 0.20.4 doesn't
  +          raise an error if it is omitted, it just drops the content. More
  +          recent releases will catch this problem.
  +        </p>
  +<p>
  +          Also, the fo:table-with-caption element is not implemented, tables
  +          within such an element are dropped too. FOP generates an error
  +          message for this problem. The DocBook style sheets generate
  +          fo:table-with-caption elements, so watch out.
  +        </p>
  +</div>
  +<a name="N10235"></a><a name="cells-overflow"></a>
  +<h4 class="faq">3.8. Text overflowing table cells and the like is not clipped. Long
  +        text flows into adjacent cells/block, obscuring stuff there.</h4>
  +<div align="right">
  +<a href="#cells-overflow-menu">^</a>
  +</div>
  +<div style="margin-left: 15px">
  +<p>
  +          Clipping as specified by the <span class="codefrag">overflow="hidden"</span> is not yet
  +          implemented.  If you have long words overflowing table cells, try to
  +          get them hyphenated. Artificial names like product identifications or
  +          long numbers usually aren't hyphenated. You can try special processing
  +          at XSLT level, like
  +        </p>
  +<ul>
  +          
  +<li>
  +            clip long text,
  +          </li>
  +          
  +<li>
  +            explicit wrapping+clipping,
  +          </li>
  +          
  +<li>
  +            insert zero width spaces (U+200B or &amp;#x200B;) to allow FOP to
  +            wrap.
  +          </li>
  +        
  +</ul>
  +<p>
  +          Check the <a class="external" href="http://dpawson.co.uk/xsl">XSL FAQ</a> and the
  +          <a class="external" href="http://www.mulberrytech.com/xsl/xsl-list/">XSL list
  +          archive</a> for how to perform these tasks.
  +        </p>
  +</div>
  +<a name="N10257"></a><a name="page-number-align"></a>
  +<h4 class="faq">3.9. Page numbers are not properly right aligned.</h4>
  +<div align="right">
  +<a href="#page-number-align-menu">^</a>
  +</div>
  +<div style="margin-left: 15px">
  +<p>
  +          This happens for fo:page-number-citation elements if the
  +          citation occurs before FOP formatted the requested page,
  +          usually in TOC or index pages. It is caused by the problem
  +          that FOP has to guess how much space the yet unknown page
  +          number will occupy, and usually the guesses are somewhat
  +          off.
  +        </p>
  +<p>
  +          The most recent FOP releases should have this problem
  +          fixed. Check whether you can upgrade.
  +        </p>
  +</div>
  +<a name="N10262"></a><a name="hyphenation-fails"></a>
  +<h4 class="faq">3.10. Hyphenation does not work.</h4>
  +<div align="right">
  +<a href="#hyphenation-fails-menu">^</a>
  +</div>
  +<div style="margin-left: 15px">
  +<p>Make sure you have set the language and/or country attributes for an appropriate XSL-FO element (fo:page-sequence, fo:block or fo:character):</p>
  +<pre class="code">&lt;fo:page-sequence language="fi"&gt;</pre>
  +<p>See <a href="hyphenation.html#support">Hyphenation Support</a> for details and instructions on using hyphenation with FOP.</p>
  +<p>Explicitly enable hyphenation for an appropriate XSL-FO element (fo:block, fo:character):</p>
  +<pre class="code">&lt;fo:block hyphenate="true"&gt;</pre>
  +</div>
  +</div>
  +<a name="N1027C"></a><a name="part-embedding"></a>
  +<div class="h4">
  +<h4>4. Embedding FOP. Using FOP in a servlet.</h4>
  +<a name="N10280"></a><a name="servlet"></a>
  +<h4 class="faq">4.1. How do I use FOP in a servlet?</h4>
  +<div align="right">
  +<a href="#servlet-menu">^</a>
  +</div>
  +<div style="margin-left: 15px">
  +<p>
  +          See <a href="embedding.html#servlet">Using FOP in a Servlet</a>.
  +        </p>
  +</div>
  +<a name="N1028C"></a><a name="servlet-with-xslt"></a>
  +<h4 class="faq">4.2. How do I use FOP in a servlet with an XSLT
  +      transformation?</h4>
  +<div align="right">
  +<a href="#servlet-with-xslt-menu">^</a>
  +</div>
  +<div style="margin-left: 15px">
  +<p>
  +          See <a href="embedding.html#servlet-transform">Using FOP in a Servlet with XSLT Transformation</a>.
  +        </p>
  +</div>
  +<a name="N10298"></a><a name="servlet-xslt-params"></a>
  +<h4 class="faq">4.3. How do I pass parameters to the XSLT transformation?</h4>
  +<div align="right">
  +<a href="#servlet-xslt-params-menu">^</a>
  +</div>
  +<div style="margin-left: 15px">
  +<p>
  +          See <a href="embedding.html#servlet-transform">Using FOP in a Servlet with XSLT Transformation</a>.
  +        </p>
  +</div>
  +<a name="N102A4"></a><a name="servlet-nonstd-fonts"></a>
  +<h4 class="faq">4.4. How do I use my own fonts when running FOP from a
  +      servlet?</h4>
  +<div align="right">
  +<a href="#servlet-nonstd-fonts-menu">^</a>
  +</div>
  +<div style="margin-left: 15px">
  +<p>
  +          Declare the fonts in the <span class="codefrag">userconfig.xml</span> file as usual.
  +See <a href="#usercfg">loading the user configuration file</a> for further details.
  +        </p>
  +</div>
  +<a name="N102B3"></a><a name="servlet-baseDir"></a>
  +<h4 class="faq">4.5. How do I set the baseDir property in a servlet environment?</h4>
  +<div align="right">
  +<a href="#servlet-baseDir-menu">^</a>
  +</div>
  +<div style="margin-left: 15px">
  +<p>
  +          See <a href="embedding.html#config-internal">Setting the Configuration Programmatically</a>.
  +        </p>
  +</div>
  +<a name="N102BF"></a><a name="usercfg"></a>
  +<h4 class="faq">4.6. How do I use a user configuration file from a servlet?</h4>
  +<div align="right">
  +<a href="#usercfg-menu">^</a>
  +</div>
  +<div style="margin-left: 15px">
  +<p>
  +          See <a href="embedding.html#config-external">Using a Configuration File in an Embedded App</a>.
  +        </p>
  +</div>
  +<a name="N102CB"></a><a name="servlet-NoClassDefFound"></a>
  +<h4 class="faq">4.7. I keep getting NoClassDefFound and other exceptions. How do I
  +        get FOP working for various servlet engines?</h4>
  +<div align="right">
  +<a href="#servlet-NoClassDefFound-menu">^</a>
  +</div>
  +<div style="margin-left: 15px">
  +<p>
  +          See <a href="embedding.html#servlet-engine">Servlet Engines</a>.
  +        </p>
  +</div>
  +<a name="N102D7"></a><a name="multithreaded"></a>
  +<h4 class="faq">4.8. Can FOP be used in multithreaded environments?</h4>
  +<div align="right">
  +<a href="#multithreaded-menu">^</a>
  +</div>
  +<div style="margin-left: 15px">
  +<p>
  +          See <a href="embedding.html#multithreading">Multithreading FOP</a>.
  +        </p>
  +</div>
  +</div>
  +<a name="N102E3"></a><a name="part-svg"></a>
  +<div class="h4">
  +<h4>5. SVG specific questions</h4>
  +<a name="N102E7"></a><a name="svg-text"></a>
  +<h4 class="faq">5.1. The rendering of SVG text in my PDF is of poor quality.
  +Can I control this?</h4>
  +<div align="right">
  +<a href="#svg-text-menu">^</a>
  +</div>
  +<div style="margin-left: 15px">
  +<p>See <a href="graphics.html#svg-pdf-text">Placing SVG Text into PDF</a>.</p>
  +</div>
  +<a name="N102F3"></a><a name="svg-headless"></a>
  +<h4 class="faq">5.2. How do I use FOP with SVG on headless servers?</h4>
  +<div align="right">
  +<a href="#svg-headless-menu">^</a>
  +</div>
  +<div style="margin-left: 15px">
  +<p>See <a href="graphics.html#batik">FOP: Graphics (Batik)</a>.</p>
  +</div>
  +<a name="N102FF"></a><a name="svghangs"></a>
  +<h4 class="faq">5.3. FOP does not exit if a SVG is included.</h4>
  +<div align="right">
  +<a href="#svghangs-menu">^</a>
  +</div>
  +<div style="margin-left: 15px">
  +<p>
  +          Applies to older FOP versions and JDK 1.3 and older. That's because
  +          there is an AWT thread hanging around. The solution is to put a
  +          System.exit(0) somewhere.
  +        </p>
  +</div>
  +<a name="N10307"></a><a name="svg-url"></a>
  +<h4 class="faq">5.4. I have problems with SVG referring to gradients etc. using
  +        "uri(#stuff)". I get a MalformedURLException.</h4>
  +<div align="right">
  +<a href="#svg-url-menu">^</a>
  +</div>
  +<div style="margin-left: 15px">
  +<p>
  +          This is really a "resolving relative URI" problem with some
  +          twists. The problem is that the <span class="codefrag">#stuff</span> URL fragment
  +          identifier is resolved within the current SVG document. So the
  +          reference must be valid within the XML subset and it cannot
  +          reference other SVG documents in the same XML file. Some options
  +          to try:
  +        </p>
  +<ul>
  +          
  +<li>
  +            Put the SVG into a separate file and use it with
  +            fo:external-graphics.
  +          </li>
  +          
  +<li>
  +            Use a separate SVG file which contains only the gradient (and
  +            perhaps other SVG stuff you want to reference) and point an absolute
  +            URL to it:
  +            <span class="codefrag">fill="url(file:///c:/refstuff/grad.svg#PurpleToWhite)"</span>.
  +          </li>
  +          
  +<li>
  +            Same as above but use a relative URL:
  +            <span class="codefrag">fill="url(grad.svg#PurpleToWhite)"</span>. This may be easier
  +            to deploy.
  +          </li>
  +          
  +<li>
  +            Make sure that the reference is valid in the current SVG document.
  +          </li>
  +        
  +</ul>
  +<p>
  +          In any case, the referenced stuff has to be pointed to by an URL. It
  +          doesn't necessarily have to be a file URL, HTTP should also
  +          work. Also, expect a performance hit in all cases, because another XML
  +          file has to be retrieved and parsed.
  +        </p>
  +<p>
  +          Ultimately, both FOP and especially Batik should be fixed to make
  +          your code work as expected, but this will not only take some time
  +          but also some effort by a standard committee in order to make the
  +          semantics of this kind of references in embedded SVG clearer.
  +        </p>
  +<p>See also <a href="#MalformedURL">MalformedURLException</a>
  +</p>
  +</div>
  +<a name="N10333"></a><a name="svg-scaling"></a>
  +<h4 class="faq">5.5. Why is my SVG rendered at a size different from that specified in my fo:external-graphic element?</h4>
  +<div align="right">
  +<a href="#svg-scaling-menu">^</a>
  +</div>
  +<div style="margin-left: 15px">
  +<p>See <a href="graphics.html#svg-scaling">SVG Scaling</a>.</p>
  +</div>
  +</div>
  +<a name="N1033F"></a><a name="part-pdf"></a>
  +<div class="h4">
  +<h4>6. PDF specific (includes Acrobat peculiarities)</h4>
  +<a name="N10343"></a><a name="pdf-embed-font"></a>
  +<h4 class="faq">6.1. How do I embed fonts in PDF?</h4>
  +<div align="right">
  +<a href="#pdf-embed-font-menu">^</a>
  +</div>
  +<div style="margin-left: 15px">
  +<p>
  +          See the <a href="fonts.html">Fonts</a> page for information
  +          about embedding fonts.
  +        </p>
  +</div>
  +<a name="N1034F"></a><a name="pdf-characters"></a>
  +<h4 class="faq">6.2. Some characters are not displayed, or displayed incorrectly, or
  +      displayed as &ldquo;#&rdquo;.</h4>
  +<div align="right">
  +<a href="#pdf-characters-menu">^</a>
  +</div>
  +<div style="margin-left: 15px">
  +<p>
  +          This usually means the selected font doesn't have a glyph
  +          for the character.
  +        </p>
  +<p>
  +          The standard text fonts supplied with Acrobat Reader have
  +          mostly glyphs for characters from the ISO Latin 1 character
  +          set. For a variety of reasons, even those are not completely
  +          guaranteed to work, for example you can't use the fi
  +          ligature from the standard serif font. Check the <a href="output.html#pdf-fonts">overview</a> for the default
  +          PDF fonts.
  +        </p>
  +<p>
  +          If you use your own fonts, the font must have a glyph for
  +          the desired character. Furthermore the font must be
  +          available on the machine where the PDF is viewed or it must
  +          have been embedded in the PDF file. See <a href="fonts.html">embedding fonts</a>.
  +        </p>
  +<p>
  +          For most symbols, it is better to select the symbol font
  +          explicitely, for example in order to get the symbol for the
  +          mathematical empty set, write:
  +        </p>
  +<pre class="code">&lt;fo:inline font-family="Symbol"&gt;&amp;#x2205;&lt;/fo:inline&gt;</pre>
  +<p>
  +          The "#" shows up if the selected font does not define a glyph for the
  +          required character, for example if you try:
  +        </p>
  +<pre class="code">&lt;fo:inline font-family="Helvetica"&gt;&amp;#x2205;&lt;/fo:inline&gt;</pre>
  +</div>
  +<a name="N10373"></a><a name="pdf-postprocess"></a>
  +<h4 class="faq">6.3. What tools are available for post-processing my PDF document?</h4>
  +<div align="right">
  +<a href="#pdf-postprocess-menu">^</a>
  +</div>
  +<div style="margin-left: 15px">
  +<p>See <a href="output.html#pdf-postprocess">PDF Post-processing</a>.</p>
  +</div>
  +<a name="N1037F"></a><a name="pdf-security"></a>
  +<h4 class="faq">6.4. How do I add security features (encryption, disable printing)
  +      to my PDF document?</h4>
  +<div align="right">
  +<a href="#pdf-security-menu">^</a>
  +</div>
  +<div style="margin-left: 15px">
  +<p>
  +          See <a href="pdfencryption.html">PDF Encryption</a>.
  +          See also <a href="output.html#pdf-postprocess">PDF Post-processing</a>.
  +        </p>
  +</div>
  +<a name="N1038F"></a><a name="pdf-doc-properties"></a>
  +<h4 class="faq">6.5. How do I add document properties (title, author, etc.) to my
  +      PDF document?</h4>
  +<div align="right">
  +<a href="#pdf-doc-properties-menu">^</a>
  +</div>
  +<div style="margin-left: 15px">
  +<p>See <a href="output.html#pdf-postprocess">PDF Post-processing</a>.</p>
  +</div>
  +<a name="N1039B"></a><a name="pdf-watermark"></a>
  +<h4 class="faq">6.6. How do I add watermarks to my PDF document?</h4>
  +<div align="right">
  +<a href="#pdf-watermark-menu">^</a>
  +</div>
  +<div style="margin-left: 15px">
  +<p>See <a href="output.html#pdf-watermark">PDF Watermarks</a>.</p>
  +</div>
  +<a name="N103A7"></a><a name="pdf-print-contortion"></a>
  +<h4 class="faq">6.7. The PDF is printed contorted!</h4>
  +<div align="right">
  +<a href="#pdf-print-contortion-menu">^</a>
  +</div>
  +<div style="margin-left: 15px">
  +<p>
  +          Check the paper size in Acrobat settings and the "fit to page" print
  +          setting. Contorted printing is often caused by a mismatched paper
  +          format, for example if the setting is "US Letter" but the PDF was
  +          made for A4. Sometimes also the printer driver interferes, check its
  +          settings too.
  +        </p>
  +</div>
  +<a name="N103AF"></a><a name="pdf-bookmark-display"></a>
  +<h4 class="faq">6.8. How do I control the Acrobat bookmark display?</h4>
  +<div align="right">
  +<a href="#pdf-bookmark-display-menu">^</a>
  +</div>
  +<div style="margin-left: 15px">
  +<p>
  +          FOP does not currently support this feature. Possible workarounds
  +          include those mentioned in the <a href="#PDF-postprocess">PDF
  +            Post-Processing FAQ</a>.
  +        </p>
  +</div>
  +</div>
  +<a name="N103BB"></a><a name="part-iex"></a>
  +<div class="h4">
  +<h4>7. IEx specific stuff</h4>
  +<a name="N103BF"></a><a name="iex-servlet-multiple"></a>
  +<h4 class="faq">7.1. The FOP servlet is called multiple times!</h4>
  +<div align="right">
  +<a href="#iex-servlet-multiple-menu">^</a>
  +</div>
  +<div style="margin-left: 15px">
  +<p>
  +          This is a problem of Internet Explorer requesting the content several
  +          times. Please see the <a href="servlets.html#ie">notes on Internet Explorer</a>
  +          for more information.
  +        </p>
  +</div>
  +<a name="N103CB"></a><a name="iex-pdf-print-from-browser"></a>
  +<h4 class="faq">7.2. How do I print PDF directly from the browser?</h4>
  +<div align="right">
  +<a href="#iex-pdf-print-from-browser-menu">^</a>
  +</div>
  +<div style="margin-left: 15px">
  +<p>
  +          It depends whether you mean "printing to a printer under control of
  +          the server" or "printing on the client's printer".
  +        </p>
  +<p>
  +          For the first problem, look at the print servlet in the FOP
  +          examples. You'll have to gather any printer settings in a HTML form
  +          and send it to the server.
  +        </p>
  +<p>
  +          For the second task, you can use some client side script to start
  +          Acrobat Reader in print mode, or use a Java applet based on the FOP
  +          print servlet. This depends heavily on the client installation and
  +          should not relied on except in tightly controlled environments.
  +        </p>
  +<p>
  +          See also http://marc.theaimsgroup.com/?l=fop-dev&amp;m=101065988325115&amp;w=2
  +        </p>
  +</div>
  +</div>
  +<a name="N103DC"></a><a name="part-input"></a>
  +<div class="h4">
  +<h4>8. General questions regarding XSLT, XSLFO, and basic XML</h4>
  +<a name="N103E0"></a><a name="fo-center"></a>
  +<h4 class="faq">8.1. (FO) How do I vertically center an image or a table (or
  +      whatever)?</h4>
  +<div align="right">
  +<a href="#fo-center-menu">^</a>
  +</div>
  +<div style="margin-left: 15px">
  +<p>
  +          See <a href="fo.html#fo-center-vertical">XSL-FO Vertical Centering</a>.
  +        </p>
  +</div>
  +<a name="N103EC"></a><a name="fo-center-table-horizon"></a>
  +<h4 class="faq">8.2. (FO) How do I center a table horizontally?</h4>
  +<div align="right">
  +<a href="#fo-center-table-horizon-menu">^</a>
  +</div>
  +<div style="margin-left: 15px">
  +<p>
  +          See <a href="fo.html#fo-center-table-horizon">XSL-FO Horizontal Centering (Tables)</a>.
  +        </p>
  +</div>
  +<a name="N103F8"></a><a name="fo-page-outer"></a>
  +<h4 class="faq">8.3. (FO) How to get page numbers printed on the "outer side" of the
  +        page (for books, for example)?</h4>
  +<div align="right">
  +<a href="#fo-page-outer-menu">^</a>
  +</div>
  +<div style="margin-left: 15px">
  +<p>
  +          See <a href="fo.html#fo-oddeven">Recto/Verso Static Content Differences</a>.
  +        </p>
  +</div>
  +<a name="N10404"></a><a name="oddeven"></a>
  +<h4 class="faq">8.4. (FO) How do I use different static content for odd and even
  +      pages?</h4>
  +<div align="right">
  +<a href="#oddeven-menu">^</a>
  +</div>
  +<div style="margin-left: 15px">
  +<p>
  +          See <a href="fo.html#fo-oddeven">Recto/Verso Static Content Differences</a>.
  +        </p>
  +</div>
  +<a name="N10410"></a><a name="fo-first-page-header"></a>
  +<h4 class="faq">8.5. (FO) How do I get a special header on the first page?</h4>
  +<div align="right">
  +<a href="#fo-first-page-header-menu">^</a>
  +</div>
  +<div style="margin-left: 15px">
  +<p>
  +          See <a href="fo.html#fo-first-page">Making the First Page Special</a>.
  +        </p>
  +</div>
  +<a name="N1041C"></a><a name="fo-omit-headers"></a>
  +<h4 class="faq">8.6. (FO) How do I omit my headers on a blank page? How do I write
  +      "This page is left blank" on an intentionally blank page?</h4>
  +<div align="right">
  +<a href="#fo-omit-headers-menu">^</a>
  +</div>
  +<div style="margin-left: 15px">
  +<p>
  +          See <a href="fo.html#fo-blank-pages">Blank Pages</a>.
  +        </p>
  +</div>
  +<a name="N10428"></a><a name="fo-special-symbols"></a>
  +<h4 class="faq">8.7. (FO) How do I print an Euro sign, a checkbox or other some other
  +      special symbols?</h4>
  +<div align="right">
  +<a href="#fo-special-symbols-menu">^</a>
  +</div>
  +<div style="margin-left: 15px">
  +<p>
  +          See <a href="fo.html#xml-special-chars">Special Characters</a>.
  +        </p>
  +</div>
  +<a name="N10434"></a><a name="fo-preformat"></a>
  +<h4 class="faq">8.8. (FO) How do I keep linebreaks and hard spaces? How do I get
  +        preformatted text displayed as expected?</h4>
  +<div align="right">
  +<a href="#fo-preformat-menu">^</a>
  +</div>
  +<div style="margin-left: 15px">
  +<p>
  +          See <a href="fo.html#fo-preformat">Preformatting Content</a>.
  +        </p>
  +</div>
  +<a name="N10440"></a><a name="fo-total-pages"></a>
  +<h4 class="faq">8.9. (FO) How do I print the total number of pages, for example "page 1
  +      of 12"</h4>
  +<div align="right">
  +<a href="#fo-total-pages-menu">^</a>
  +</div>
  +<div style="margin-left: 15px">
  +<p>
  +          See <a href="fo.html#fo-total-pages">Total Document Pages</a>.
  +        </p>
  +</div>
  +<a name="N1044C"></a><a name="fo-region-overlap"></a>
  +<h4 class="faq">8.10. (FO) The header overlaps body content. The body extends into
  +      the footer.</h4>
  +<div align="right">
  +<a href="#fo-region-overlap-menu">^</a>
  +</div>
  +<div style="margin-left: 15px">
  +<p>
  +          See <a href="fo.html#fo-region-align">Aligning Regions</a>.
  +        </p>
  +</div>
  +<a name="N10458"></a><a name="fo-lines"></a>
  +<h4 class="faq">8.11. (FO) How do I get lines in the document, as separators, side
  +      bars or folding marks?</h4>
  +<div align="right">
  +<a href="#fo-lines-menu">^</a>
  +</div>
  +<div style="margin-left: 15px">
  +<p>
  +          See <a href="fo.html#fo-lines">Drawing Lines</a>.
  +        </p>
  +</div>
  +<a name="N10464"></a><a name="fo-validate"></a>
  +<h4 class="faq">8.12. (FO) How do I validate my FO document?</h4>
  +<div align="right">
  +<a href="#fo-validate-menu">^</a>
  +</div>
  +<div style="margin-left: 15px">
  +<p>
  +          See <a href="fo.html#fo-validate">Validating XSL-FO</a>.
  +        </p>
  +</div>
  +<a name="N10470"></a><a name="xml-non-breaking-space"></a>
  +<h4 class="faq">8.13. (XML) How do I get a non-breaking space in FO? There are complaints about &amp;nbsp;.</h4>
  +<div align="right">
  +<a href="#xml-non-breaking-space-menu">^</a>
  +</div>
  +<div style="margin-left: 15px">
  +<p>
  +          See <a href="fo.html#xml-special-chars">XML Special Characters</a>.
  +        </p>
  +</div>
  +<a name="N1047F"></a><a name="xml-undefined-entities"></a>
  +<h4 class="faq">8.14. (XML) How do I enter special characters in XML? There are complaints about undefined entities, such as &amp;uuml;, which work in HTML. </h4>
  +<div align="right">
  +<a href="#xml-undefined-entities-menu">^</a>
  +</div>
  +<div style="margin-left: 15px">
  +<p>
  +          See <a href="fo.html#xml-special-chars">XML Special Characters</a>.
  +        </p>
  +</div>
  +<a name="N1048E"></a><a name="xml-illegal-entities"></a>
  +<h4 class="faq">8.15. (XML) There are complaints about illegal characters and entities
  +      in the input.</h4>
  +<div align="right">
  +<a href="#xml-illegal-entities-menu">^</a>
  +</div>
  +<div style="margin-left: 15px">
  +<p>
  +          See <a href="fo.html#xml-entity-chars">Using HTML Character Names</a>.
  +        </p>
  +</div>
  +<a name="N1049A"></a><a name="xml-illegal-chars"></a>
  +<h4 class="faq">8.16. (XML) There are complaints about illegal bytes or characters in
  +      the input. There are odd characters in the result.</h4>
  +<div align="right">
  +<a href="#xml-illegal-chars-menu">^</a>
  +</div>
  +<div style="margin-left: 15px">
  +<p>
  +          See <a href="fo.html#xml-encoding">XML Encoding Issues</a>.
  +        </p>
  +</div>
  +<a name="N104A6"></a><a name="xslt-current-date"></a>
  +<h4 class="faq">8.17. (XSLT) How can I use the current date and time in my document?</h4>
  +<div align="right">
  +<a href="#xslt-current-date-menu">^</a>
  +</div>
  +<div style="margin-left: 15px">
  +<p>See <a href="fo.html#xslt-date">Current Date and Time</a>.</p>
  +</div>
  +</div>
  +<a name="N104B2"></a><a name="part-help"></a>
  +<div class="h4">
  +<h4>9. General suggestions. How to solve problems.</h4>
  +<a name="N104B6"></a><a name="bugs"></a>
  +<h4 class="faq">9.1. I think I have found a bug in FOP. What should I do?</h4>
  +<div align="right">
  +<a href="#bugs-menu">^</a>
  +</div>
  +<div style="margin-left: 15px">
  +<p>
  +          See <a href="bugs.html">the Bugs page</a> for information about
  +          bugs already reported and how to report new ones.
  +        </p>
  +</div>
  +<a name="N104C2"></a><a name="postquestions"></a>
  +<h4 class="faq">9.2. I have questions that are not addressed in this FAQ. Where
  +      should I post them?</h4>
  +<div align="right">
  +<a href="#postquestions-menu">^</a>
  +</div>
  +<div style="margin-left: 15px">
  +<p>
  +        
  +<ul>
  +          
  +<li>If your question is a development-related question, please see the <a href="dev/faq.html">Developer FAQs</a>.</li>
  +          
  +<li>
  +            If you have a runtime exception or other runtime problem:
  +            <ul>
  +              
  +<li>
  +                double-check the <a href="#part-running">Runtime FAQs</a>.
  +              </li>
  +              
  +<li>
  +                ClassNotFoundException, NoSuchMethodException and
  +                NoSuchFieldException problems are almost always a problem with
  +                the local environment. Try to get local help first.
  +              </li>
  +              
  +<li>
  +                Check <a href="bugs.html#issues_existing">Reported Issues</a>
  +                to see if this is a known problem.
  +              </li>
  +              
  +<li>If none of the above apply, post a question to the fop-dev
  +                mailing list.
  +              </li>
  +            
  +</ul>
  +          
  +</li>
  +          
  +<li>
  +            In the case where something works properly with another formatter,
  +            (AntennaHouse, PassiveTex, etc.) but doesn't work with FOP, please
  +            check the <a href="relnotes.html">Release Notes</a>, the
  +            <a href="compliance.html">FOP Standards Compliance</a> document,
  +            and the remaining FAQ in this document. If not found there, look at the
  +            list of <a href="bugs.html#issues_existing">Bugs Already Reported</a>.
  +            If not found there, please post a question on the fop-user mailing list
  +            or <a href="bugs.html#issues_new">Open a New Bug</a>.
  +          </li>
  +          
  +<li>
  +            Question about how to use FOP, how to perform certain tasks with FOP
  +            or how to integrate FOP into another application should be posted to
  +            fop-user.
  +          </li>
  +          
  +<li>
  +            XSLT specific stuff sould go to the <a class="external" href="http://www.mulberrytech.com/xsl/xsl-list/">XSL
  +            list</a>. This includes problems with the language and XSLT
  +            HOW-TOs.
  +          </li>
  +          
  +<li>
  +            Problems specific to a certain XSLT processor, like Xalan, Saxon or
  +            MSXML, should be handled by processor specific lists. This includes
  +            problems with deployment, processor specific extensions, suspected
  +            bugs and processor specific APIs. Note that JDK 1.4 comes with an
  +            XML parser and an XSLT processor which are older versions of
  +            Xerces and Xalan, respectively, and both have a number of annoying
  +            bugs. See $$$FIXME on how to use more recent versions or other
  +            packages instead.
  +          </li>
  +          
  +<li>
  +            Problems with servlet containers should be asked on the vendor
  +            specific lists for these software packages.
  +          </li>
  +          
  +<li>
  +            More general questions regarding Java, including deployment, Java
  +            APIs, classpath issues and property definitions should be redirected
  +            to some Java specific list.
  +          </li>
  +        
  +</ul>
  +      
  +</p>
  +</div>
  +</div>
  +</div>
   <a name="N10009"></a><a name="Questions"></a>
   <h2 class="underlined_10">Questions</h2>
   <div class="section">
  
  
  

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