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Subject [GitHub] [beam] lukecwik commented on a change in pull request #11065: [BEAM-2939, BEAM-9458] Add deduplication transform
Date Fri, 06 Mar 2020 23:42:47 GMT
lukecwik commented on a change in pull request #11065: [BEAM-2939, BEAM-9458] Add deduplication
transform
URL: https://github.com/apache/beam/pull/11065#discussion_r389195375
 
 

 ##########
 File path: sdks/java/core/src/main/java/org/apache/beam/sdk/transforms/Deduplicate.java
 ##########
 @@ -0,0 +1,325 @@
+/*
+ * Licensed to the Apache Software Foundation (ASF) under one
+ * or more contributor license agreements.  See the NOTICE file
+ * distributed with this work for additional information
+ * regarding copyright ownership.  The ASF licenses this file
+ * to you under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the
+ * "License"); you may not use this file except in compliance
+ * with the License.  You may obtain a copy of the License at
+ *
+ *     http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
+ *
+ * Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
+ * distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS,
+ * WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied.
+ * See the License for the specific language governing permissions and
+ * limitations under the License.
+ */
+package org.apache.beam.sdk.transforms;
+
+import javax.annotation.Nullable;
+import org.apache.beam.sdk.coders.BooleanCoder;
+import org.apache.beam.sdk.coders.Coder;
+import org.apache.beam.sdk.coders.KvCoder;
+import org.apache.beam.sdk.state.StateSpec;
+import org.apache.beam.sdk.state.StateSpecs;
+import org.apache.beam.sdk.state.TimeDomain;
+import org.apache.beam.sdk.state.Timer;
+import org.apache.beam.sdk.state.TimerSpec;
+import org.apache.beam.sdk.state.TimerSpecs;
+import org.apache.beam.sdk.state.ValueState;
+import org.apache.beam.sdk.values.KV;
+import org.apache.beam.sdk.values.PCollection;
+import org.apache.beam.sdk.values.TypeDescriptor;
+import org.joda.time.Duration;
+
+/**
+ * A set of {@link PTransform}s which deduplicate input records over a time domain and threshold.
+ * Values in different windows will not be considered duplicates of each other. Deduplication
is
+ * best effort.
+ *
+ * <p>Two values of type {@code T} are compared for equality <b>not</b>
by regular Java {@link
+ * Object#equals}, but instead by first encoding each of the elements using the {@code
+ * PCollection}'s {@code Coder}, and then comparing the encoded bytes. This admits efficient
+ * parallel evaluation.
+ *
+ * <p>These PTransforms are different then {@link Distinct} since {@link Distinct}
guarantees
+ * uniqueness of values within a {@link PCollection} but may support a narrower set of {@link
+ * org.apache.beam.sdk.values.WindowingStrategy windowing strategies} or may delay when output
is
+ * produced.
+ *
+ * <p>The durations specified may impose memory and/or storage requirements within
a runner and care
+ * might need to be used to ensure that the deduplication time limit is long enough to remove
+ * duplicates but short enough to not cause performance problems within a runner. Each runner
may
+ * provide an optimized implementation of their choice using the deduplication time domain
and
+ * threshold specified.
+ *
+ * <p>Does not preserve any order the input PCollection might have had.
+ *
+ * <p>Example of use:
+ *
+ * <pre>{@code
+ * PCollection<String> words = ...;
+ * PCollection<String> deduplicatedWords =
+ *     words.apply(Deduplicate.<String>values());
+ * }</pre>
+ */
+public final class Deduplicate {
+  /** The default is the {@link TimeDomain#PROCESSING_TIME processing time domain}. */
+  public static final TimeDomain DEFAULT_TIME_DOMAIN = TimeDomain.PROCESSING_TIME;
+  /** The default duration is 10 mins. */
+  public static final Duration DEFAULT_DURATION = Duration.standardMinutes(10);
+
+  /**
+   * Deduplicates values over a specified time domain and threshold. Construct via {@link
+   * Deduplicate#values()}.
+   */
+  public static final class Values<T> extends PTransform<PCollection<T>, PCollection<T>>
{
+    private final TimeDomain timeDomain;
+    private final Duration duration;
+
+    private Values(TimeDomain timeDomain, Duration duration) {
+      this.timeDomain = timeDomain;
+      this.duration = duration;
+    }
+
+    @Override
+    public PCollection<T> expand(PCollection<T> input) {
+      return input
+          .apply(
+              "KeyByElement",
+              MapElements.via(
+                  new SimpleFunction<T, KV<T, Void>>() {
+                    @Override
+                    public KV<T, Void> apply(T element) {
+                      return KV.of(element, (Void) null);
+                    }
+                  }))
+          .apply(new KeyedValues<>(timeDomain, duration))
+          .apply(Keys.create());
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * Returns a {@code Values} {@link PTransform} like this one but with the specified time
domain.
+     */
+    public Values<T> withTimeDomain(TimeDomain timeDomain) {
+      return new Values<T>(timeDomain, duration);
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * Returns a {@code Values} {@link PTransform} like this one but with the specified duration.
+     */
+    public Values<T> withDuration(Duration duration) {
+      return new Values<T>(timeDomain, duration);
+    }
+  }
+
+  /**
+   * A {@link PTransform} that uses a {@link SerializableFunction} to obtain a representative
value
+   * for each input element used for deduplication.
+   *
+   * <p>Construct via {@link Deduplicate#withRepresentativeValueFn}.
+   *
+   * @param <T> the type of input and output element
+   * @param <IdT> the type of representative values used to dedup
+   */
+  public static final class WithRepresentativeValues<T, IdT>
+      extends PTransform<PCollection<T>, PCollection<T>> {
+    private final SerializableFunction<T, IdT> fn;
+    @Nullable private final TypeDescriptor<IdT> type;
+    @Nullable private final Coder<IdT> coder;
+    private final TimeDomain timeDomain;
+    private final Duration duration;
+
+    private WithRepresentativeValues(
+        TimeDomain timeDomain,
+        Duration duration,
+        SerializableFunction<T, IdT> fn,
+        @Nullable TypeDescriptor<IdT> type,
+        @Nullable Coder<IdT> coder) {
+      this.timeDomain = timeDomain;
+      this.duration = duration;
+      this.fn = fn;
+      this.type = type;
+      this.coder = coder;
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * Return a {@code WithRepresentativeValues} {@link PTransform} that is like this one,
but with
+     * the specified id type descriptor.
+     *
+     * <p>Either {@link #withRepresentativeCoder} or this method must be invoked if
using {@link
+     * Deduplicate#withRepresentativeValueFn} in Java 8 with a lambda as the fn.
+     *
+     * @param type a {@link TypeDescriptor} describing the representative type of this {@code
+     *     WithRepresentativeValues}
+     * @return A {@code WithRepresentativeValues} {@link PTransform} that is like this one,
but with
+     *     the specified representative value type descriptor. Any previously set representative
+     *     value coder will be cleared.
+     */
+    public WithRepresentativeValues<T, IdT> withRepresentativeType(TypeDescriptor<IdT>
type) {
+      return new WithRepresentativeValues<>(timeDomain, duration, fn, type, null);
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * Return a {@code WithRepresentativeValues} {@link PTransform} that is like this one,
but with
+     * the specified id type coder.
+     *
+     * <p>Required for use of {@link Deduplicate#withRepresentativeValueFn} in Java
8 with a lambda
+     * as the fn.
+     *
+     * @param coder a {@link Coder} capable of encoding the representative type of this {@code
+     *     WithRepresentativeValues}
+     * @return A {@code WithRepresentativeValues} {@link PTransform} that is like this one,
but with
+     *     the specified representative value coder. Any previously set representative value
type
+     *     descriptor will be cleared.
+     */
+    public WithRepresentativeValues<T, IdT> withRepresentativeCoder(Coder<IdT>
coder) {
+      return new WithRepresentativeValues<>(timeDomain, duration, fn, null, coder);
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * Returns a {@code WithRepresentativeValues} {@link PTransform} like this one but with
the
+     * specified time domain.
+     */
+    public WithRepresentativeValues<T, IdT> withTimeDomain(TimeDomain timeDomain) {
+      return new WithRepresentativeValues<>(timeDomain, duration, fn, type, coder);
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * Return a {@code WithRepresentativeValues} {@link PTransform} that is like this one,
but with
+     * the specified deduplication duration.
+     */
+    public WithRepresentativeValues<T, IdT> withDuration(Duration duration) {
+      return new WithRepresentativeValues<>(timeDomain, duration, fn, type, coder);
+    }
+
+    @Override
+    public PCollection<T> expand(PCollection<T> input) {
+      WithKeys<IdT, T> withKeys = WithKeys.of(fn);
+      if (type != null) {
+        withKeys = withKeys.withKeyType(type);
+      }
+      PCollection<KV<IdT, T>> inputWithKey = input.apply(withKeys);
+      if (coder != null) {
+        inputWithKey.setCoder(KvCoder.of(coder, input.getCoder()));
+      }
+      return inputWithKey
+          .apply(new KeyedValues<>(timeDomain, duration))
+          .apply(org.apache.beam.sdk.transforms.Values.create());
+    }
+  }
+
+  /**
+   * Deduplicates keyed values using the key over a specified time domain and threshold.
Construct
+   * via {@link Deduplicate#keyedValues()} ()}.
+   */
+  public static final class KeyedValues<K, V>
+      extends PTransform<PCollection<KV<K, V>>, PCollection<KV<K, V>>>
{
+    private final TimeDomain timeDomain;
+    private final Duration duration;
+
+    private KeyedValues(TimeDomain timeDomain, Duration duration) {
+      this.timeDomain = timeDomain;
+      this.duration = duration;
+    }
+
+    @Override
+    public PCollection<KV<K, V>> expand(PCollection<KV<K, V>> input)
{
+      return input.apply(ParDo.of(new DeduplicateFn<>(timeDomain, duration)));
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * Returns a {@code KeyedValues} {@link PTransform} like this one but with the specified
time
+     * domain.
+     */
+    public KeyedValues<K, V> withTimeDomain(TimeDomain timeDomain) {
+      return new KeyedValues<>(timeDomain, duration);
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * Returns a {@code KeyedValues} {@link PTransform} like this one but with the specified
+     * duration.
+     */
+    public KeyedValues<K, V> withDuration(Duration duration) {
+      return new KeyedValues<>(timeDomain, duration);
+    }
+  }
+
+  /**
+   * Returns a deduplication transform that deduplicates values for up to 10 mins within
the {@link
+   * TimeDomain#PROCESSING_TIME processing time domain}.
+   */
+  public static <T> Deduplicate.Values<T> values() {
+    return new Deduplicate.Values<>(DEFAULT_TIME_DOMAIN, DEFAULT_DURATION);
+  }
+
+  /**
+   * Returns a deduplication transform that deduplicates keyed values using the key for up
to 10
+   * mins within the {@link TimeDomain#PROCESSING_TIME processing time domain}.
+   */
+  public static <K, V> Deduplicate.KeyedValues<K, V> keyedValues() {
+    return new Deduplicate.KeyedValues<>(DEFAULT_TIME_DOMAIN, DEFAULT_DURATION);
+  }
+
+  /**
+   * Returns a deduplication transform that deduplicates values using the supplied representative
+   * value for up to 10 mins within the {@link TimeDomain#PROCESSING_TIME processing time
domain}.
+   */
+  public static <T, IdT> Deduplicate.WithRepresentativeValues<T, IdT> withRepresentativeValueFn(
+      SerializableFunction<T, IdT> representativeValueFn) {
+    return new Deduplicate.WithRepresentativeValues<T, IdT>(
+        DEFAULT_TIME_DOMAIN, DEFAULT_DURATION, representativeValueFn, null, null);
+  }
+
+  /////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
+
+  // prevent instantiation
+  private Deduplicate() {}
+
+  /**
+   * A stateful {@link DoFn} that uses a {@link ValueState} to capture whether the value
has ever
+   * been seen.
+   *
+   * @param <K>
+   * @param <V>
+   */
+  private static class DeduplicateFn<K, V> extends DoFn<KV<K, V>, KV<K,
V>> {
+    private static final String EXPIRY_TIMER = "expiryTimer";
+    private static final String SEEN_STATE = "seen";
+
+    @TimerId(EXPIRY_TIMER)
+    private final TimerSpec expiryTimerSpec;
+
+    @StateId(SEEN_STATE)
+    private final StateSpec<ValueState<Boolean>> seenState = StateSpecs.value(BooleanCoder.of());
+
+    private final Duration duration;
+
+    private DeduplicateFn(TimeDomain timeDomain, Duration duration) {
+      this.expiryTimerSpec = TimerSpecs.timer(timeDomain);
+      this.duration = duration;
+    }
+
+    @ProcessElement
+    public void processElement(
+        @Element KV<K, V> element,
+        OutputReceiver<KV<K, V>> receiver,
+        @StateId(SEEN_STATE) ValueState<Boolean> seenState,
+        @TimerId(EXPIRY_TIMER) Timer expiryTimer) {
+      Boolean seen = seenState.read();
+      // Seen state is either set or not set so if it has been set then it must be true.
 
 Review comment:
   Yes I can, thanks for pointing out the one byte saving which over many keys can really
add up.

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