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From "Sylvain Lebresne (JIRA)" <>
Subject [jira] [Commented] (CASSANDRA-6405) When making heavy use of counters, neighbor nodes occasionally enter spiral of constant memory consumpion
Date Fri, 03 Jan 2014 08:16:54 GMT


Sylvain Lebresne commented on CASSANDRA-6405:

In and of itself, having lots of instances of CounterColumn is not abnormal when doing lots
of counter operations as this the class for each counter value while inserting/reading them.
If you do lots of normal operations, you'll similarly see a lot of Column object allocated.
The behavior you are seeing is not particularly normal, but having very many CounterColumn
objects is not a definitive sign of a problem.

That being said, do you do insertions at CL.ONE? If so, counters are kind of a time bomb in
the sense that the read that is done as part of replication is done *after* we've answered
the client. Which means that if you insert too fast, replication tasks will pill up behind
the scenes, and those task will hold memory that cannot be GCed. In particular, one thing
to look at is the replicate_on_write stage in JMX. If pendingTasks are accumulating, that's
likely your problem (you're inserting faster than your cluster can actually handle). In which
case the basic solution consists in rate limiting the insertions so pending tasks don't pill

> When making heavy use of counters, neighbor nodes occasionally enter spiral of constant
memory consumpion
> ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
>                 Key: CASSANDRA-6405
>                 URL:
>             Project: Cassandra
>          Issue Type: Bug
>         Environment: RF of 3, 15 nodes.
> Sun Java 7 (also occurred in OpenJDK 6, and Sun Java 6).
> Xmx of 8G.
> No row cache.
>            Reporter: Jason Harvey
>         Attachments: threaddump.txt
> We're randomly running into an interesting issue on our ring. When making use of counters,
we'll occasionally have 3 nodes (always neighbors) suddenly start immediately filling up memory,
CMSing, fill up again, repeat. This pattern goes on for 5-20 minutes. Nearly all requests
to the nodes time out during this period. Restarting one, two, or all three of the nodes does
not resolve the spiral; after a restart the three nodes immediately start hogging up memory
again and CMSing constantly.
> When the issue resolves itself, all 3 nodes immediately get better. Sometimes it reoccurs
in bursts, where it will be trashed for 20 minutes, fine for 5, trashed for 20, and repeat
that cycle a few times.
> There are no unusual logs provided by cassandra during this period of time, other than
recording of the constant dropped read requests and the constant CMS runs. I have analyzed
the log files prior to multiple distinct instances of this issue and have found no preceding
events which are associated with this issue.
> I have verified that our apps are not performing any unusual number or type of requests
during this time.
> This behaviour occurred on 1.0.12, 1.1.7, and now on 1.2.11.
> The way I've narrowed this down to counters is a bit naive. It started happening when
we started making use of counter columns, went away after we rolled back use of counter columns.
I've repeated this attempted rollout on each version now, and it consistently rears its head
every time. I should note this incident does _seem_ to happen more rarely on 1.2.11 compared
to the previous versions.
> This incident has been consistent across multiple different types of hardware, as well
as major kernel version changes (2.6 all the way to 3.2). The OS is operating normally during
the event.
> I managed to get an hprof dump when the issue was happening in the wild. Something notable
in the class instance counts as reported by jhat. Here are the top 5 counts for this one node:
> {code}
> 5967846 instances of class org.apache.cassandra.db.CounterColumn 
> 1247525 instances of class com.googlecode.concurrentlinkedhashmap.ConcurrentLinkedHashMap$WeightedValue

> 1247310 instances of class org.apache.cassandra.cache.KeyCacheKey 
> 1246648 instances of class com.googlecode.concurrentlinkedhashmap.ConcurrentLinkedHashMap$Node

> 1237526 instances of class org.apache.cassandra.db.RowIndexEntry 
> {code}
> Is it normal or expected for CounterColumn to have that number of instances?
> The data model for how we use counters is as follows: between 50-20000 counter columns
per key. We currently have around 3 million keys total, but this issue also replicated when
we only had a few thousand keys total. Average column count is around 1k, and 90th is 18k.
New columns are added regularly, and columns are incremented regularly. No column or key deletions
occur. We probably have 1-5k "hot" keys at any given time, spread across the entire ring.
R:W ratio is typically around 50:1. This is the only CF we're using counters on, at this time.
CF details are as follows:
> {code}
>     ColumnFamily: CommentTree
>       Key Validation Class: org.apache.cassandra.db.marshal.AsciiType
>       Default column value validator: org.apache.cassandra.db.marshal.CounterColumnType
>       Cells sorted by: org.apache.cassandra.db.marshal.CompositeType(org.apache.cassandra.db.marshal.LongType,org.apache.cassandra.db.marshal.LongType,org.apache.cassandra.db.marshal.LongType)
>       GC grace seconds: 864000
>       Compaction min/max thresholds: 4/32
>       Read repair chance: 0.01
>       DC Local Read repair chance: 0.0
>       Populate IO Cache on flush: false
>       Replicate on write: true
>       Caching: KEYS_ONLY
>       Bloom Filter FP chance: default
>       Built indexes: []
>       Compaction Strategy: org.apache.cassandra.db.compaction.LeveledCompactionStrategy
>       Compaction Strategy Options:
>         sstable_size_in_mb: 160
>                 Column Family: CommentTree
>                 SSTable count: 30
>                 SSTables in each level: [1, 10, 19, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0]
>                 Space used (live): 4656930594
>                 Space used (total): 4677221791
>                 SSTable Compression Ratio: 0.0
>                 Number of Keys (estimate): 679680
>                 Memtable Columns Count: 8289
>                 Memtable Data Size: 2639908
>                 Memtable Switch Count: 5769
>                 Read Count: 185479324
>                 Read Latency: 1.786 ms.
>                 Write Count: 5377562
>                 Write Latency: 0.026 ms.
>                 Pending Tasks: 0
>                 Bloom Filter False Positives: 2914204
>                 Bloom Filter False Ratio: 0.56403
>                 Bloom Filter Space Used: 523952
>                 Compacted row minimum size: 30
>                 Compacted row maximum size: 4866323
>                 Compacted row mean size: 7742
>                 Average live cells per slice (last five minutes): 39.0
>                 Average tombstones per slice (last five minutes): 0.0
> {code}
> Please let me know if I can provide any further information. I can provide the hprof
if desired, however it is 3GB so I'll need to provide it outside of JIRA.

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