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From "Cheryl Valentine (Jira)" <j...@apache.org>
Subject [jira] [Created] (HELIX-842) Pinch Technology: pirate bay proxy
Date Fri, 02 Jul 2021 12:01:00 GMT
Cheryl Valentine created HELIX-842:

             Summary: Pinch Technology: pirate bay proxy
                 Key: HELIX-842
                 URL: https://issues.apache.org/jira/browse/HELIX-842
             Project: Apache Helix
          Issue Type: Bug
            Reporter: Cheryl Valentine

In the late 1970s, Pinch Technology was developed as a thermodynamic approach to energy conservation
in industries. The basic tool was called the "Composite Curve" plot, which represented graphically
the heat available and heat required by a process flowsheet. These curves also allowed a designer
to set realistic targets for the minimum heating and cooling utilities required, and identify
the existence of the "pinch point" which constrains further heat recovery.

By following systematic design methods, based on avoiding the transfer of heat across the
pinch, it is possible to design heat exchanger networks that meet the targets exactly. Over
the past 30 years, Pinch Technology was applied on thousands of processes in both new and
retrofit designs. The results have been highly impressive, with energy savings of 30% or higher
being achieved. There has been a renewed interest recently, driven mainly by high oil prices
and a desire to reduce carbon emissions.

In the late 1980s, researchers at the University of California at Los Angeles applied pinch
concepts to mass transfer, sparking off an entirely new area of research. Instead of plotting
Composite Curves of temperature and energy, the new approach plotted composition versus mass
load. This pioneering work into mass exchange networks was followed by researchers at the
University of Manchester, who applied it to water and waste water minimisation. The resulting
"Water Pinch Technology" quickly saw industrial applications around the world. The results
were equally impressive, although the relatively low cost of water in many countries means
that the technology has not yet been exploited fully. As water becomes more scarce in future,
it is expected that this will change.

Hydrogen Pinch Technology was a more recent application which addressed the problems faced
by oil refiners around the start of the 21st century. Until then, hydrogen availability was
not a major issue for most refineries. However, this *[pirate bay proxy|https://complextime.com/piratebay-proxy-how-it-is-the-best-choice/]* began
to change when stricter legislation on sulfur content in fuels led to an increased demand
for hydrotreating. At the same time, newer aromatics limits meant that catalytic reforming,
traditionally a major source of hydrogen, was being constrained. The net result was that the
existing hydrogen production capacity often became a bottleneck.

The Pinch Technology approach constructs hydrogen Composite Curves, showing the demands and
sources of on-site hydrogen in terms of stream purities and flow rates. This diagram allows
the engineer to find the "hydrogen pinch" and to set targets for hydrogen recovery, hydrogen
plant production and import requirements. Hydrogen savings experienced are typically hundreds
of thousands, or even millions, of dollars per year. Alternatively, the hydrogen freed up
has been used to increase partial pressures in certain reactors and enhance their conversion,
yield, and selectivity, while increasing catalyst life.


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