Bumping. All inputs appreciated
From: Sharma, Praneet
Sent: Friday, August 23, 2019 11:24 AM
To: 'email@example.com' <firstname.lastname@example.org>
Subject: Classloading issues when using connectors with Uber jars with improper Shading in single Spark job
When using connectors with Uber jars, we are hitting classloading issues in Spark 2.3.0. Upon investigation we found out that the classloading issues were caused by improper shading of certain classes in these uber jars. The aim of
this email is to start a discussion on whether such issues can be mitigated/avoided from Spark core, and if yes, then how.
We have built a Spark job using Spark version 2.3.0 which reads from Azure Cosmos DB. In Spark, to read from cosmos DB, we are relying on an Uber jar provided by Azure - azure-cosmosdb-spark_2.3.0_2.11-1.2.2-uber.jar.
To add this jar to the Spark driver and executor classpaths, we are relying on the properties spark.driver.extraClasspath and spark.executor.extraClasspath, respectively. When this Spark job is run, we hit the following issue:
ERROR ApplicationMaster: User class threw exception: java.lang.VerifyError: Bad type on operand stack
Location: org/apache/spark/metrics/sink/MetricsServlet.<init>(Ljava/util/Properties;Lcom/codahale/metrics/MetricRegistry;Lorg/apache/spark/SecurityManager;)V @116: invokevirtual
Reason: Type 'com/codahale/metrics/json/MetricsModule' (current
frame, stack) is not assignable to 'com/fasterxml/jackson/databind/Module'
We have done some analysis on this issue from our side which we are detailing in the below section.
We have a Spark 2.3.0 setup to work with Cloudera cluster in yarn-cluster mode. By default, Spark’s driver and executor classpaths, among others, have the following jars:
To work with cosmos DB, the jar we have explicitly added in the classpaths is azure-cosmosdb-spark_2.3.0_2.11-1.2.2-uber.jar. This is an uber jar and is shaded with prefix “cosmosdb_connector_shaded”,
but the shading is improper, meaning some classes are left with their original fully qualified names – this is the origin of the classloading issue I mentioned above. The below table highlights the classes of interest being present in one of the above mentioned
jars and the order in which Spark’s MutableURLClassLoader might attempt to load them:
||Classes of Interest
Please note that classes from cosmosdb-spark TPL will get loaded first because this jar is added to the top of URL classpath pile of MutableURLClassLoader. To reiterate, the error we see is: “Type 'com/codahale/metrics/json/MetricsModule' (current
frame, stack) is not assignable to 'com/fasterxml/jackson/databind/Module'”. And according to our analysis, the following is the reason why this occurs:
- When the Spark driver comes up, it attempts to register an instance of MetricsModule class. MetricsModule is a concrete class implementation of Module class, which means
the Spark driver classloader will attempt to load both these classes.
- The Module class is loaded from jackson-databind-2.6.5.jar class because even though the same class is present in the uber jar but it is shaded, hence its fully qualified classname is different from the one which is attempted
to being loaded.
- On the other hand, when the MetricsModule class is loaded, it gets loaded from the uber jar. This is because, due to improper nature of shading plugin, the MetricsModule class was not shaded in the
uber jar, and also because uber jar is at the top of the classpath pile.
- This results in the above exception because the MetricsModule class present in the uber jar was not compatible with the Module class present in jackson-databind-2.6.5.jar.
This is one example where the issue occurs. We have seen similar issues occurring when we attempt to use both Cosmos DB and Snowflake connectors in a single Spark job. Please note that we only use those TPLs and their versions
which the vendors officially announce as supported for a particular Spark version.
How the above error could have been avoided?
- If the uber jar had been properly shaded, the MetricsModule class would have been loaded from metrics-json-3.1.2.jar which is compatible with jackson-databind-2.6.5.jar containing the abstract class Module.
- From what we understand, total shading is not possible due to a variety of reasons.
- Or, If the dependencies embedded in the uber jar had been compatible with the same dependencies present elsewhere, then even with improperly shaded uber jar, it would not have mattered the jar from where the duplicate dependency class is being loaded.
- But this is in vendor control and not in our control. Connectors by different vendors can work separately in Spark but using them together in a single job can get problematic. We see this when attempting to use both cosmos DB and Snowflake in a single Spark
Child-first Classloader as a solution for wrapping connectors in Spark?
We are able to resolve these issues on Spark driver by wrapping load and save Dataframe calls in their separate child-first classloaders and ensuring the Uber TPLs are only present in these child-first classloaders.
For example, the child-first classloader (child of MutableURLClassloader) wrapping cosmos db’s load method will only have azure-cosmosdb-spark_2.3.0_2.11-1.2.2-uber.jar in its classpath. But we are not able to achieve the same with Spark executors
because we don’t have much control there. To achieve a similar thing with cosmos DB spark executor code, we will be required to modify its open-source code and wrap the lambda within mapPartitionsWithIndex with a child-first classloader. This would mean
doing this individually for each connector we want to work with, which is not viable.
Thus we reach out to you guys to figure out how such issues can be tackled. Is there a way to achieve isolated classloading for connectors reading and writing portions in Spark? If yes, how can that be achieved? If not, what other
choices do we have here? What does spark community recommend we do to support our use cases mentioned here?